Hungarian Mannlicher 31.M Long Rifles and Rifles
|Modified/converted by Fémáru Fegyver és Gépgyár (FÉG), Budapest, 1931-1935|
New Caliber: 8x56mm rimmed (31.Minta)
Muzzle velocity 680-720 m/sec with 31.M cartridge
Integral clip-loaded box magazine, 5 rounds
Action: Straight-pull bolt action, with two lugs on a detachable bolt head engaging the receiver
1005mm [39.5"] overall, 3.15kg [6.93 lbs] (stutzen)
500mm [19.7"] barrel, 4-groove rifling, RH, concentric, 1 turn in 250mm
M1895 knife bayonet
|In 1931 the Hungarian Army (the Honvédség) adopted a rimmed 8x56mm cartridge to replace the old Austro-Hungarian 8x50mm design. The new round, known as
the 31.M cartridge (M.31 töltény) in Hungary, was initially used in modified 1890-type or 1895-type straight-pull Mannlicher rifles and carbines alike.
These were essentially similar to the Austro-Hungarian patterns, but received new back sights and new front-sight protectors. An 8-12mm high letter 'H' was
stamped on top of the chamber. H = Hegyes Töltény [pointed bullet].|
The original receiver and barrel shank markings of the old Model 1895 guns were retained. Most long rifles were rebarreled or were cut down to carbine (actually rifle or 'puska') length. The cut-down barreled rifles received a designation of 31/a.M. See muzzle pictures below for difference.
A small number of long M95's were also converted to the 31.M configuration, while retaining their long barrels, for the 'Testörség' [Govenmental Guards]. These rifles had chromed sling swivels, canvas slings instead of leather and had a butt-cover with the Guards Crest. These had special long bayonets.
A different style 'H'
|Note difference between the 31.M and the 31/a.M|
The left picture shows the 31.M with the front sight directly built onto the top of the barrel. The barrel is smooth, the narrow band is for the sight protector. The right picture shows the 31/a.M with the front sight mounted on a band slid onto the barrel. The wider band is for the sight, the narrow band is for the sight protector.
|Service life was brief, as the adoption of the 35.M rifle caused the conversion to be withdrawn into storage. Survivors were reissued for service in
1940. On the left, a Hungarian soldier with a 31.M on the Eastern Front during WW2.|
Picture courtesy of Becze Csaba
|Original 2400 Schritt rear sights were replaced with new leaf sights graduated to 2000 meters|
Four different Long Rifle Rear Sight Modifications for Stutzen/Carbine use:
1. Graduated to 2200m, Most Common Variant
2. Graduated to 2200m, Stutzen Slide
3. Graduated to 1800m, Sight face milled
4. Graduated to 1500m only
|Front sling swivels|
|31.M Buttstock marking K.Á.B. is the abbreviation of Központi Átvételi Bizottság (Central Acceptance Committe), 1932-1944|
According to an old document: "The duty KÁB is to officially inspect, accept and certify the quality and the quantity of military industrial and consumer goods obtained through domestic and foreign commerce, which results in legal authorization to the MNB [Magyar Nemzeti Bank] to satisfy the manufacturer."
Military Gendarmerie Guards Honvédség Csendörség Testörség Bayonet Weight .285 .415 .400 kg Full Length 362 560 534 mm Blade Length 248 456 430 mm Blade Width 23 26 26 mm Blade Thickness 5 13 15 mm
|A standard M1895-type knife bayonet was used by the Military, with an auxiliary front sight on top of the muzzle ring. This compensated for the change in point-of-impact caused by firing the Stutzen with the bayonet fixed. See below the photo of bayonet mounted with auxiliary front sight (courtesy of 'Goex fff' on Gunboards)|
|The Hungarian Gendarmerie (Csendörség) used the more intimidating 456mm [18"] blade-length bayonets. The Guards' 430mm [17"] blade bayonet was similar.|
Ammo Safety: the M95 rifles chambered for the 8x56mm cartridge are not recommended to be used with the old conical-nosed 8x50mm cartridge. Although both cartridges are rimmed, and headspaced at the rim, the 8x56mm is 6mm longer and more powerful. The spent 8x50 cartridge cases will be re-formed to the 8x56 shape. Many shooters used these 'exchanged' cartridges without any injury or damage, however these cartridges are not guaranteed to be safely interchangeable.