Hungarian Kispuska Training Rifles



29M. Kispuska (29M. Training Rifle)
also called 29M Levente Puska

Designed under the leadership of Rudolf Frommer
Quantity: Est 5000 manufactured by Fémárú Fegyver és Gépgyár Rt. Budapest, 1929-30
Single shot, bolt action rifle
Caliber: 29M 6mm [.22 LR]
Muzzle velocity 330 m/s

Designed in 1929 for economical military training, target shooting and as a Cadet Rifle (Levente Puska). The designation 'Kispuska' actually means 'Little rifle'. The .22LR was adopted by Hungary in 1929 and it was designated as the '29M. 6m/m Cellovo Tolteny' [M29 6mm Target Cartridge].
Only a limited amount of 29M rifles were manufactured before a new improved version, the 30M was adopted.


30M. Kispuska (30M. Training Rifle)
also called 30M Levente Puska

Quantity: Est 25,000 manufactured by Fémáru Fegyver és Gépgyár Rt., Budapest, 1930-38
Single shot, bolt action rifle
Caliber: 29M 6mm [.22 LR]
Muzzle velocity 330 m/s
Overall length 1100mm, Barrel length 645mm
Weight: 3kg [6.6 lbs]
Adjustable tangent rear sight graduated from 25m - 200m

A significantly redesigned and improved version of the 29M. Improvements included: adjustable rear sight, globe-type front sight protector, firing pin safety was added.
This Kispuska has excellent ballistic qualities and a very accurate .22 shooter due to the unusually heavy barrel and the high quality of workmanship
Typical legend: Fémáru Fegyver és Gépgyár RT
Military approval crest


38M. Kispuska (38M. Training Rifle)
also called 38M Levente Puska

Quantity: Est 25,000 manufactured by Fémárú Fegyver és Gépgyár Rt. Budapest, 1938-41
Caliber: 29M 6mm [.22 LR]
Overall length 1100mm, Barrel length 645mm
Weight: 3kg [6.6 lbs]

Adjustable tangent rear sight graduated from 25m - 200m

The 38M's improvements over the 30M:
A trigger adjustment screw was added as shown. Also, windage adjustment was added to the rear sight..

Rifle accessories: muzzle protector, cleaning rod, wire brush, plus various cleaning and oiling accessories.

Serial with proofmark


41M. Kispuska (41M. Training Rifle)

Quantity: Est 10,000 manufactured by Fémárú Fegyver és Gépgyár Rt. Budapest, 1941-44
Caliber: 29M 6mm [.22 LR]
Overall length 1100mm, Barrel length 645mm
Weight: 3kg [6.6 lbs]
Adjustable tangent rear sight graduated from 25m - 200m

The differences between the 38M and 41M are unknown. Unconfirmed sources indicate that the wooden forend of the 38M was shortened significantly.


Lámpagyár Kispuska 48M (Post WW2 manufactured Training Rifles)

Quantity: nearly 100,000 were manufactured by Lámpagyár [Lamp Factory], Femaru, Budapest, cca. 1946-65
Caliber: the old 29M 6mm was redesignated as 48M 5,6mm [still the same .22 LR]
Overall length 1100mm, Barrel length 645mm
Weight: 3kg [6.6 lbs]
Adjustable tangent rear sight graduated from 25m - 200m

A new target/training rifle was requested by the military in 1948 to improve the 41M. Ambrus Balogh, who was involved in the design of the original 38M, selected the 38M for the improvements. The pre-WW2 38M Kispuska was re-adopted in 1948 as the 48M (48 Minta) with minor alterations.
Contrary to popular belief, the 48M Kispuska design has no relationship with the Russian Mosin Nagant action, it is still based on the old 29M Frommer Femaru Kispuska action, originally developed as a training rifle for the straight pull Mannlicher M95 equipped army. Having a typical bolt action, the Kispuska was still a perfectly acceptable training rifle for the post-1948 Mosin Nagant equipped army.

At least 4 variants of the manufacturers legend observed:

Lámpagyár RT, Budapest - est. 1946-48 [RT, a publicly traded company, used until the factory was nationalized] est 10,000 made, Known serials: None

Lámpagyár, Budapest - est. 1948-56 [legend used during the Rakosi-era until the 1956 Revolution] est 60,000 made.
Known serials: 15459, R-2xxx

Lámpagyár NV, Budapest - est. 1957-59 [National Factory legend used during the early Kadar-era after the 1956 Revolution] est 14,000 made.
Known serials: 13230, S-3016

Femaru es Szerszamgepgyar NV, Budapest - est. 1959-65 [Name change of factory circa 1959, Kadar-era] est 6,000 made, Known serials: None

These Kispuska rifles were fairly easily accessible and very popular before and during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, so post-1956 production was limited. The Communist goverment's fear of the people overtook the urge to train the population for the "inevitable confrontation" with the West. In post-1956 Hungary the civilian ownership of guns became completely illegal. This gun ban even included air guns. High ranking Communist officials were exempt of course.

Please submit your Kispuska's legend and serial data to the author to help further research and correct the data.

Some of these rifles were surplussed to Germany. Typical German markings were added:

Additional details:

Several pictures courtesy of Ivan Janse and Miller Tyme (7.62x54r.net Forums).

Estimated Serial Numbers & (Reported serials)

29M 1929-1930: 1 - 5000
30M 1930-1938: 5001 - 30000
38M 1938-1941: 30001 - 55000  (31029 - 43419)
41M 1941-1944: 55001 - 65000
48M 1946-1948: 1 - 10000
48m 1948-1956: 10001 - 70000  (15459, R-2xxx)
48M 1957-1959: 1 - 14000   (13230, S-3016)
48M 1959-1965: 14001 - 20000
Please provide your serials to update this data

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