I will try to list all available important historical events related to Hungary and/or the Hungarian people, in chronological order. As my information is coming from researching a large number of, many times conflicting information sources, I will try to include all variations of certain events. If available I will add links to historical figures, photos, biographies, various country maps, battlefield maps, and links to weapons used, etc. Generally the wording stays as simple and minimalistic as possible, however I do not leave out important events due to "political correctness" or "space limitation", as professional history book writers do. I welcome any comments, additions, corrections and any volunteers who can help me out with this project. So far I revieved only 5% of my sources - so be patient. The 1st section, "The Finno-Ugric Origins of Hungarians" is based on books from the Socialist era Hungary. Pre- and Post-Socialist research revealed different origins, which will be discussed in a different chapter. If you have researched the subject, especially the non-Finno-Ugric origins", please offer assistance for the new chapter. If your material is in Hungarian, I can translate it to English.

The Finno-Ugric Origin theory of the Hungarians

This is probably the most argued and lest documented part of the Hungarian history. Most dates and events were based on archeological finds and comparisons. Names of the various people, ethnic tribes, etc. were used in their Hungarian version unless German, Italian, English or other version of these names were available.

10000-7000 BC

The first Finnugor or Urali people appeared at both East and West side of the Southern Ural Mountains.

7000-6000 BC

The Finnugor people appeared by the Eastern side of the Baltic Sea.

6000-5000 BC

The Finnugor people appeared as far South as the area between the Caspian Sea and the Aral Lake.

4000-3500 BC

The unity (and connectivity) of the Finnugor people is broken. The Samojeds, Voguls and Manysics moved to the Upper-Ob and Yenisey rivers' area, Lapps moved to Scandinavia.

3500-3000 BC

Continuing the breakup, the Zurjens and Vots moved North up to the Northern Sea West of the Ural Mountains.

3000-2500 BC

The 1st Finnish people appeared in Karelia and at the current Finland's territory. The Magyars appeared by the Kama river, South-West of the Ural Mountains.

2500-2000 BC

Finnugor people appeared by the Volga river. (Mordvins, Mescsers, Muromas, Merjas and Cheremises, the Finnish side of the Finnugor people)

2000-1500 BC

The Finnugor people living East of the Ural Mountains settled down in farming communities. Finnugors west of the Urals entered the Bronze-age, some of these people started farming, however most of them stayed hunting, fishing, gathering. Additional Finns moved to the Baltics and Scandinavia, introducing the Bronze-age there. The Magyars moved slightly West from the Kama river area, finally separating themselves from the Eastern Ugor ethnic groups. There is evidence of horseback riding since this era.

1500-1400 BC

The Eastern Ugor people in Western Siberia developed into the Bronze-age. Indo-European (Iranian) people moved North into the Volga river area influencing the area's Finnugor occupants and introduced farming.

1200-1100 BC

The Finnugors gradually pushed out the Indo-European (Iranian) people who moved North into the Volga river area 300 years earlier. The remaining Iranians mixed into the Finnugors.

1000-900 BC

The Magyars were completely separated from other Finnugor groups and developed independently since. They still followed the hunting/nomadic life style.

800-500 BC

The Kama river area entered the Iron-age. The Upper-Volga Finns intermixed with the Baltic Finns and also entered the Iron-age.

600-400 BC

The Saramatas living at the Southern edge of the Urals are believed to be remains of Magyar and Vogul tribes. The Finnugor Voguls and Manysics living in the Ob river entered the Iron-age. These tribes absorbed some Asian people moving North.

400-300 BC

The Saramatas' territory expanded to the west, and now included most/all Magyar tribes. This area called Baskiria, is often referred to as Magna Hungaria, the 1st territory of the Hungarians (Magyars). The few remaining Magyar tribes from the East side of the Urals moved West into Magna Hungaria. Other sources puts this migration 5-600 years later.

300 BC -100 AD

Magna Hungaria was bordered by the Kama river on the North, Ural Mountains s on the East, Ural River on the South and the Volga River on the East. The Magyars apparently stayed in this area, continuing a generally nomadic horse-culture.

100-300 AD

The 1st Asian origin nomadic steppe tribes (such as the Huns) started their move to the west, towards the Ural Mountains. This started the Ugor tribes' migration from the East side of the Urals to the West side, including Magna Hungaria. There were non-Ugors in the migration, such as the probably Turkish Baskirs. Other Finnugors, Votjaks (Udmurts) and Cheremics (Maris) still occupied North of the Kama river.


Some of the migrating steppe tribes were absorbed by the Ugors. Some sources claim that the Magyar tribes started their migration westward in this time period, but other sources put this move several hundred years later.


Remains of Turkish origin people are found while the Magyars were still there (or by other sources, after the Hungarians left Magna Hungaria, and soon after that the nomadic Volga-Bolgars (Ogur or Onogur Bolgars) also occupied the territory. Some sources claim that the Ogur Bolgars were related to the Ugor people, other sources claim Turkish origins. Turkish origin words are introduced by the Bolgars to the Magyars. The Bolgars are not to be confused with the current slavic Bulgarians. The Bolgars have a tribe called the Alans. The Alans were also referred to as Jasz [Jazig]. The Bolgars also lived North of the Kaukasian Mountains.


Eastern Turk Empire, was located at the Southern Ob and Yenisey rivers area.


Western Turk Empire, later referred to as the Khazar Khaganate (Empire), was located at the Aral Lake and Sir-Darya river area.


The Kaukasian Bolgars rebelled against the Turks and established their own empire in the Kuban river area.


The Khazars took over the Turk Empire and later the Kaukasian Bolgar Empire. These Bolgar tribes moved West with the leadersip of Asparuh to the Danube area of the current Bulgaria by 680. Other Bolgars moved North into the Volga-Don area.


Magyars were belived to occupy the Don-Donec rivers area. The Khazar Empire claimed this territory its own, however it did not seem to try to rule over the Magyars. The Magyars acted as a buffer state protecting the Khazars from the Nomads. This area is also referred to as Levedia.


The Arabs waged war on the Bolgar Alan tribe, pushing them North to the Don-Donec rivers area.


The Danube-Bolgars led by Krum were belived to be helped by Magyars during their war with Byzantin Empire.


The leadership of the Khazar Empire was taken ower by Jews. The Empire was gradually forced converted to Judaism.


The Turkish origin Kabars lived South of the Magyars. They refused to convert to Judaism and they lost their battle against the Jewish ruled Khazars. Most of the Kabars (85-90%) were exterminated. The remaining Kabars and escaped North and took refuge in the Magyar territory. The Kabars became allies of the Hungarians, and sometimes they were referred to as the '8th tribe'. Other sources referred to the Kabars as not one, but 3 small tribes.


Due to the increasing enforcement of the Khazarian Jewish leaders to turn to Judaism and a threat of imminent war, most of the Magyars tribes moved Westward, leaving Levedia and the reach of the Khazar Empire.


Some Magyar tribes reached the Eastern end of the Karpathian Mountains.


The remaining Magyars in the Don-Donyec area were attacked by a Turkish origin Besenyos, (and by other sources they were also attacked by the Turkish origin Kangars - which maybe just an alternate name of the Besenyos). These Magyar tribes were sometimes referred to as Szavirs or Szavards. The Szavir Magyars escaped Southward from the invading Besenyos, and settled South of the Kaukasian Mountains, on the steppes by the Kur [Kura] river, now in Azerbaijan.


Cyryll Constantin made a note of Magyars in the Krim peninsula area.


The first Magyars battled with the Frank Empire (King Louis) inside the Carpathian Basin.


According to Arabic documents, the Magyar leader (Fejedelem) was called Kende (or Kunde) and the military leader was called Gyula.


Svatopluk, King of the slavic Moravia hired Magyars and Kabars during his war against the Frank Empire near Vienna. The Kabars stayed with the Magyars and were gradually absorbed. During the war the Magyars gained more knowledge of the Carpathian Basin and its occupants.


The Besenyos again attacked the Magyars in Levedia, pushing the tribes Westward again into the Dnieper-Dniester rivers area, which is referred to as Etelkoz.


Arnulf Frank King also hired the Western Magyars during his revenge war against the Moravian King Svatopluk.


Arabs under the leadership of Ismail ibn Ahmed attacked the most Eastern Magyars and the Uz (Oguz) people, from the South.


The Byzantian Emperor hired the Magyars against Simeon Bolgarian Tzar. The leader of these Magyars was Levente, son of Arpad. And again, Svatopluk hired the Magyars against the Frank Empire. The Magyars took most of the Carpathian Basin from the Franks, when Svatopluk suddenly died, leaving the territory in Magyar hands. The combined Khazar and Uz army defeated the Besenyos, and pushed them Westward, towards the back of the Magyars in Etelkoz.

The Hungarian State

This chapter covers the establishment of the Hungarian State until the era of I. Istvan King


The "Honfoglalas" (Conquering the Homeland)
Arpad started to move his Magyar tribes again, now from the plains of Etelkoz to Westward beyond the Carpathian Mountains, into the Carpathian Basin which was partially militarily occupied by the Magyars during the previous year. Eventually it turned out that these mountains provided a defendable natural protection against further Eastern nomadic attacks. However the Besenyos allied with the Bolgars attacked and defeated any Magyars still left outside the Carpathian Basin.


Large portion of the local occupants, a mixed group of Avars, Slavs, Franks moved south to Bulgaria from the Carpathian Basin. The pagan Magyars did not kill the mostly Christian remaining locals. The remainders were gradually absorbed by the Magyars. A large number of occupants of the Eastern Carpathian Basin, generally in Erdely (today's Transylvania) were the Szekelys [Seklers], who happily accepted the arrival of the Magyars. The Szekelys are remnants of Atilla's Huns, who are believed to be distant relatives of the Magyars, spoke a similar language and used the same runic writing. As of today, the Szekelys still maintain their independent ethnicity under Romanian rule.


The Western part of the Carpathian Basin was originally named Pannonia by the Romans. This area was partially still under Frank rule. Arnulf Frank King instigated the Magyars to attack Lombardia, an enemy of Arnulf. The Magyars, new to fortress siege and water-warfare, were defeated by Pietro Tribuno, Doge of Venice. - Later the Magyars defeated Lombardian King Berengar. - I. King Arnulf suddenly died at the end of the year.


Using the Frank Kingdom's confusion after Arnulf's death, the Moravians from the North and Magyars from the East both started move into Pannonia. The Magyars united with their returning army from Lombardia defeated the Moravians, and pushed them out from most of the Carpathian Basin. - The Magyars offered peace to the new Frank King, Louis IV, the 'Child King' in order to keep Pannonia, but the Franks refused. - The Magyars marched an army along the Danube all the way into Bavaria until they were defeated and turned back by Baron Lipot near Linz. The Magyars however kept all of Pannonia. - Arpad Fejedelem settled the allied Kabar tribe in the area now called Sopron and Gyor Counties.


The Magyar excursion into Karinthia was defeated at Laibach. The Magyar excursion into Italy was successful as they took Vercelli.


The Magyars defeated the Moravian king and extended the northern border to the top of the Carpathian Mountains. The border stayed here for the next 1000+ years.


A Magyar excursion into Bavaria is started.


The Bavarians called for a peace meeting near the Fischa River, where they ambushed and killed the Magyar leaders including Kurszan.


Berengar I, King of Lombardia hired the Magyars to defeat the rebellious barons in his own country.


The Meissen area slavic Daleminces hired Magyars in their war against the Germanic Saxons.


Frank King, Louis IV, the 'Child King' declared that "Hunguros eliminandos esse!" [The Magyars must be eliminated] and assembled a huge army of 115,000 men to invade Pannonia. Arpad Fejedelem led a 35,000 man, mostly horeseback Magyar Army against the invading Franks. The "Battle of Pozsony" lasted from July 3 to 7 around Morvamezo and Danube area, West of Pozsony (Braslauespurch, now Bratislava). It was not a conventional battle. Arpad used various military tactics and tricks unknown to the Franks and piece-by-piece dismantled and destroyed the invaders. The Frank King's military leader Prince Luitpold and Chancellor Theotmar died in battle. Only about a 1000 Franks survived, while the Magyar losses were only 400. As a result of this battle the Frank-Magyar border was moved west to the Enns River, (near Linz, Austria), where it stayed until 955. - Later this year the Magyar leader, Arpad Fejedelem died, his son Zolta become the new Fejedelem.


A Magyar excursion into German Saxonia started, which continued into Thuringia. The Magyars defeated Burghard Thurigian Prince near Eisenach. The Prince died in battle.


The Magyars raided Bavaria and Schwabenland. They took Freising, but the returning army was chased home by the Bavarians.


The Magyars raided the Frank Kingdom and defeated Louis IV, the 'Child King' again near Augsburg. The returning army also defeated the Bavarians near Neuhing.


The Magyar excursion travelled through Bavaria, Schwabenland, the Frank Kingdom all the way into Burgundy.


The Magyars defeated Konrad I German King and went on to raid the Frank Kingdom and Thuringia.


The Magyars raided Bavaria, Schwabenland and Burgundy. The returning army was attacked and chased by Arnulf Bavarian Prince near the Inn river.


Arnulf Bavarian Prince rebelled against Konrad I German King. Arnulf escaped to the Magyars for sanctuary.


The Magyars lead a raid into Schwabenland, the Frank Kingdom, Thuringia and overtook the city of Bremen.


Arnulf Bavarian Prince attacked Konrad I near Regensburg for the control of Bavaria. Arnulf was defeated and pulled his army back to the Magyars.


Magyars raided Lotharingia and took the city of Basel. Arnulf Bavarian Prince, now with the help of the Magyar army attacked Konrad I again. The attack was successful, Arnulf took back Bavaria. After this Arnulf remained allied with the Magyars.


Magyars raiding Saxonia and Lotharingia defeated Henrik I German King.


Berengar I, King of Lombardia and Rome, hired the Magyars again to defeat the rebellion in his own country near Brescia. The Magyar leaders were named Bogat and Tarhos.


The Magyars reach the Byzantian owned Apulia in Southern Italy.


King Berengar hired the Magyars under Szalard's leadership to take the city of Pavia. Soon after Pavia is taken, King Berengar was assassinated by rebels in Verona. Szalard and the Magyars took off towards the West, and reached the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. The Magyars returning through Saxonia forced a 9-year peace agreement with Henrik I German King. The King also agreed to pay a yearly tax to the Magyars.


The Magyars raided St.Gallen, Konstanz, entered Lotharingia and Burgundy and reached the Atlantic Ocean. The returning army extended the peace agreement with Arnulf Bavarian Prince by 6 years.


Magyars were hired by Italians King Hugo, Pope John X and Prince Peter as escorts/bodyguards and also to raid their 'enemy' cities Toscana and Apulia.


The Magyars raided the city of Piacenza.


Henrik I German King refused to pay his yearly tax to the Magyars.


The Magyars raided the German Kingdom for their refusal to pay taxes. The Magyars split into 2 armies. One army was defeated in Thuringia near Botha, the other by Henrik I, near Merseburg.


The Magyars in alliance with their old enemy the Besenyos invaded the Byzantian Empire, but instead of a battle they made a 9-year peace agreement in exchange for Byzantian tax payments.


The Magyars made an excursion through Schwabenland, Frank Kingdom, Thuringia, Saxonia, Lotharingia and reached Paris. On returning they passed through Dijon, the Alps, down to Capua in Italy before reaching home.


The Magyars raiding Saxonia split into 3 groups. The 2 small ones were defeated by the Stedenburgians near Wolfenbuttel and by the slavs near Drommling. The main army returned home without a fight.


Hugo Italian King paid the Magyars to wage war against the Moors (Kalifat of Cordoba) in Spain. The Magyars passed through the Pirenneus Mountains and entered the Moors' territory, (now Spain), but turned back after reaching the unfamiliar dry desert lands.


The Magyars and Romanos I Byzantian Emperor agreed to extend their 934 peace agreement for 5 more years in exchange for continuing Byzantian tax payments. - Bertold Bavarian Prince chased out the raiding Magyars from Bavaria.


Taksony led the Magyars on a succesful raid to the Italian Otranto.


The Magyars renewed their peace agreement with Konstatin VII Byzantian Emperor for 5 more years. Their leaders Bulcsu and Tormas were Christened in Constantinapoli. Based on Byzantian records the Magyars had 7 tribes (Jeno, Ker, Keszi, Kurtgyarmat, Megyer, Nyek and Tarjan), the 8th tribe was the Kabars. The Magyars' leader was called the Fejedelem, who was from Arpad Fejedelem's family (Fajsz Fejedelem 948-955). He had 2 'assistant' Fejedelems, 'Gyula' for the military, 'Horka' for other internal issues. Additionally each tribe had its own 'Fejedelem'. In the same year Henrik I Bavarian Prince defeated a small group of raiding Magyars near Nordgau.


Gyula Fejedelem was Christened in Constantinopol. He returned with a bishop to teach Christianity to the Magyars. The raiding Magyars defeated Prince Henrik I in Bavaria.


Prince Henrik I of Bavaria invaded Hungary but turned back after reaching the Raba river. - Berengar II Italian King hired the Magyars to defend his country against the invading army of Otto I German King. Otto I defeated Berengar II before the Magyar help arrived. Otto I also defeated the Magyars near the Ticino river. Otto I annexed Northern Italy to his kingdom.


Lotharingian Prince Konrad the Red in alliance with Otto's son Schwabian Prince Liudolf rebelled against Otto I German King. Konrad called the Magyars for help, but by the time they arrived Otto made peace with the rebels. The Magyars led by Bulcsu raided the cities of Worms and Lobbes and turned back home after reaching Cambrai.


After the Magyars left the area, Otto I attacked and defeated the rebelling princes. The Magyars returned to Schwabenland and started the siege of Augsburg. On August 10, Otto I defeated the Magyars near Augsburg. He captured and executed the Magyar leaders Bulcsu, Lel and Sur. According to legend Lel (Lehel) as his last wish asked for his horn. He hit the leader of the enemy army on the head with the horn, killing him. - New Magyar Fejedelem: Taksony, 955-972. After the defeat at Augsburg the Magyars discontinued their raids toward the West.


Due to Otto's win over the Magyars in Augsburg, Konstatin VII Byzantian Emperor refused to pay his tax to the Magyars.


Botond led his 'tax collecting' Magyar army to the gate of Constantinopol. Not equipped for a successful siege of a heavily fortified fortress, the Magyars turned back empty handed.


Magyars raided Byzantian territories.


Magyars raided Byzantian territories again.


Pope John XII sent Bishop Zakeus to Hungary, however Otto I German King captured the Bishop to stop the possible alliance between the Pope and the Magyars. The Magyars raided Byzantian territories near Thessalonike, another group raided Macedonia.


Svatoslav Igorevich, Prince of Kiev (now Ukraine), organized a large army consisting of Russians, Magyars, Bolgars and Besenyos to attack the Byzantian Empire, however the Byzantians defeated this army near Burgas. This was the last raid of the Magyars.


Taksony died, the new Fejedelem was Geza, his son (972-997). Prince Otto II married Princess Theophanu, building a German-Byzantian alliance, very dangerous for the Hungarians.


Geza Fejedelem sent emissaries to Otto I to discuss opening up Hungary for Christianity.


Geza Fejedelem and 500 high ranking Magyars were Christened.


Bavarian Prince Henrik II rebelled against Otto III German-Roman King. - Geza took the Melk Fort from Austria.


Austrian Prince Babenberg Lipot I took the Melk Fort back from the Magyars.


Bavarian Prince Henrik II took control the Austrian territory near Vienna.


Bavarian Prince Henrik II died. - Istvan (Vajk), son of Geza fejedelem married Gisella, the daughter of Prince Henrik II.


The Magyars started to build the first churches. (The 1st one in Pannonhalma). - Leif Ericson, son of Viking Eric the Red, explored Northern America, the land beyond Greenland. They reached the area now called Nova Scotia. They found grapes and called the land Vineland. A Magyar member of their group was called Tyrker, a common nickname for the Magyars at that time. He engraved a large stone with in Hungarian Runic text: "Erikson járt e hejen is sok társával." [Erikson was here with his people]. This stone was found at Yarmouth Bay in Nova Scotia circa 1750. Now it is held by the Yarmouth Museum. It is a sandstine, 181kg, 78x70x50cm.

Kingdom of Hungary under the Arpad-Family kings


Geza fejedelem died. His son Istvan became the new fejedelem (997-1000) and King of Hungary (1000-1038). After Geza's death, the oldest member of the Arpad Family, Koppany, son of Tar Zerind using an ancient nomad custom, wanted to merry Geza's widow, Sarolta, and claimed to be the new Fejedelem. Istvan with his own Magyar army with the help of German heavily armored cavalry (who came with Gisella from Germany) defeated Koppany's pagan-leaning army near Veszprem.


Istvan fejedelem was crowned to be a King on December 25th. The Crown was sent by Pope Sylvester II. Part of this Crown was later referred to as the "Saint Crown".


King Istvan (also called the 'Founder of the State') reorganized the country in Western European style, including:
Established counties, archbishop seats, and church seats.
Started to mint the 1st Hungarian coins.
Released the 1st Law Book. This lawbook addressed the King's rights, the Churches' rights and religious regulations, guaranteed freedom, punished killing, kidnapping, robbery, withches, regulated slavery, protected orphans and widows.


I. Istvan defeated Gyula, Fejedelem of Erdely (Transylvania), who did not follow Istvan into Christianity.


I. Istvan's army led by Csanad defeated Ajtony, Fejedelem of the Maros area, who established Greek style church there.


The Magyars had a few small fights with Polish forces who entered the Carpathian Basin at the Morva & Vag rivers' area.


German-Roman King Henrik II made peace with Polish King Boleslo I in Bautzen. As one of the results, the original Magyar-Polish border was restored. King I. Istvan allied with Byzantian Emperor Basileios II defeated Samuel Bolgar Tzar. This victory extended the Hungarian border down to the Danube, to the Northern border of the Byzantian Empire. Prince Imre, son of I. Istvan, married to a Byzantian princess. I. Istvan opened the Hungarian borders for Christian pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem.


Venezian Gellert arrived to Hungary to help the Christian Church grow.


German-Hungarian friendship broke down after Konrad II took the German crown. Konrad II chased Hungarian-allied Doge Otto Orseolo (I. Istvan's brother-in-law) and his son, Peter, out of Venice.


I. Istvan refused passage through Hungary for Konrad's emmissary Bishop Werner to Byzantium.


German-Roman King Konrad II invaded Hungary. He got as far as Esztergom (farther than any foreign invasion into Hungary during the last 135 years), but he had to turn back due to his supply lines were cut off by the Magyars. Konrad II was chased back to Vienna. Gellert was named the Bishop of Csanad. - King I. Istvan released his 2nd Law Book. This lawbook addressed church-building requirements for every 10 villages, introduced the 'tenth' (tithe), established inheritance rules, more slavery regulations, punished conspiracy, theft, slander.


German-Roman King Konrad II and I. Istvan signed a peace agreement. As a result, the German-Hungarian border was moved west, to the River Morava. - Prince Imre died in a hunting accident on Sept. 2, leaving I. Istvan without a successor.


I. Istvan had his nephew, Vazul, blinded, to stop his aspirations for the throne. Vazul's sons Andras, Bela and Levente escaped to Poland. Later this year they unsuccessfully tried to have King I. Istvan assassinated. Istvan called his Venetian brother-in-law's son Orseolo Peter to Buda, who Istvan wanted to be his successor on the throne.


I. Istvan, King of Hungary died on August 15th. Orseolo Peter was crowned as new King (1038-1041).


King Peter provided significant military help to Czech Prince Bretislav against German-Roman Emperor Henrik III. [Note: Henrik's father, Konrad II, chased out Peter's Father, Otto, from Venice back in 1026.]


The Magyars leaders rebelled against the tyranny of King Peter and crowned I. Istvan's other nephew, Aba Samuel as King of Hungary (1041-1044). Peter sought sanctuary from Austrian Marquis Adalbert. King Peter asked for the help of German-Roman Emperor Henrik III's help to regain his throne. King Aba Samuel's representatives asked Henrik III to accept him as the new King of Hungary.


Angried by Henrik's support of Peter, Aba Samuel sent his army to Austria and reached Tullin. Henrik III sent his army to invade Hungary, destroyed Hainburg and Pozsony and reached the River Garam.


Henrik III refused Aba Samuel's first peace offering, but accepted the second offering which included territory and monetary payments from Hungary to Germany.


King Peter's supporters rebelled against King Aba Samuel in Hungary. Aba Samuel ruthlessly destroyed the rebellion. German-Roman Emperor Henrik III invaded Hungary again and defeated Aba Samuel's army. Aba Samuel escaped to Heves, where he was assassinated. King Peter received his throne back (1044-1046).


Henrik III visited Hungary. Henrik III feoffed [huberul adta] Hungary to Peter. - I. Istvan's crown was sent to Rome.


The Eastern side of Hungary rebelled against King Peter for 'giving' the country to the Germans. The rebels called back the blinded Vazul's sons Andras and Levente from Russia. King Peter escaped to the West side of the country and asked for the help of German King Henrik III. - A group of pagan rebels, led by Vata, captured and killed Bishop Gellert. I. - Andras was crowned King in Szekesfehervar (1046-1060). King Peter was defeated by King Andras near Zamoly. King Peter was captured, blinded and later he died in captivity.


King I. Andras started to mint coins. - Andras allowed a group of Italians (Vallons) to settle in Hungary. - Prince Levente, the king's brother died.


Prince Bela, the king's other brother came home from Poland and received about a third of the country as his Princedom.


I. Andras sent his army to the Byzantine Empire, to Sofia, where they agreed to a peace with the Emperor.


Gebhardt, Bishop of Regensburg sent his army against Hungary. As a response, the Hungarian army entered Austria. Gyorgy, Bishop of Kalocsa asked Pope Leo IX to influence a German-Hungarian peace agreement.


German-Roman Emperor Henrik III invaded Hungary with his army while his ally, Gebhardt, Bishop of Regensburg sent his navy down the Danube. The Hungarians allowed them deep into the country without battle, but cut-off all supplies in front and behind the invaders. Hunger turned back the German army. King I Andras' army defeated the Germans at the Vertes Mountain. The German army suffered heavy losses while the Hungarians chased them back to Hainburg. The Bishop's navy turned back, it was an ineffective force without ground support. The peace offering by Pope Leo IX was refused by Henrik III.


German-Roman Emperor Henrik III invaded Hungary again with his army and navy and he laid a siege of Pozsony (Pressburg/Bratislava). The Zotmund led Hungarians sunk Henrik's navy in a sneak attack and the fortress was successfully defended. Pope Leo IX requested a peace again. Henrik gave up the siege and returned home.


German-Roman Emperor Henrik III chased away Bavarian Prince Konrad I from his Princedom. The prince took refuge in Hungary.


Bavarian Prince Konrad I returned to Karinthia with Hungarian help and took Hengistburg. - After Roman-Byzantian disagreements, the Christian Church split into a Western and Eastern churches with Rome and Constantinopol as centers.


German-Roman Emperor Henrik III died. - King I. Andras initiated peace talks with the new Emperor Henrik IV. - The Hungarians completed the 1st census.


King I. Andras had his son, Salamon, crowned as king.


I. Andras and German-Roman Emperor Henrik IV signed a peace agreement at Morvamezo. I. Andras' son, Salamon, was engaged to Henrik's sister, Judith. - Isaac Komnenos I, Byzantian Emperor sent his army towards Hungary, however the two countries signed a peace agreement in Sofia.


Hungarian Prince Bela started to mint his own money within his princedom. I. Andras questioned Bela's future throne-aspiration against Salamon. Bela took refuge in Poland.


Prince Bela returned to Hungary with a Polish army. His brother, King I. Andras requested German help. Bela won the two brother's battle near the Tisza river. The battle-injured King, I. Andras, was captured, prisoned, and died shortly. Prince Bela was crowned as I. Bela King (1060-1063) in Szekesfehervar.


I. Bela called the 1st National Assembly. The pagans under the leadership of Vata's son Janos, demanded the reinstatement of the pagan religion. I. Bela refused their request and closed the Assembly.


I. Bela was injured in a accident and died. Henrik IV's German army brought back I. Andras' son, Salamon to Hungary and crowned him as new King (1063-1074) in Szekesfehervar. - I. Bela's sons Geza, Laszlo and Lambert took refuge in Poland. - The German army left Hungary. - Prince Geza and his brothers returned to hungary with a Polish army. King Salamon pulled back to safety to Moson, near the German border.


The Hungarian bishops negotiated a peace agreement between King Salamon and Prince Geza.


The Czechs broke into Hungary and pillaged until they turned back from Trencsen. - Hungary gave military help to Prince Geza's brother-in-law, Croatian King Zvonimir in his war against Venetian Doge Domenico Contareno.


The Besenyos living in Moldavia organized a raiding party with the help of Uz and Kun tribes under the leadership of Osul. They broke into Erdely (Transylvania) at Borgo, and they went pillaging to Bihar, Szatmar and back to Erdely. The combined army of Salamon, Geza and Laszlo destroyed the raiders near Cserhalom.


The Byzantians holding Nandorfehervar (now Belgrad) hired the Besenyos to raid Hungary again. The Besenyos entered Hungary at Zimony and pillaged Szerem county. The combined army of the King and Princes defeated the Besenyos, took back the Szerem Fortress. As a punishment, they also took Nandorfehervar from the Byzantians after a 60-day siege. Nandorfehervar (now called Belgrad) was considered part of Hungary until 1918 (although it changed hands a few times) - Romanos Diogenes Byzantian Emperor was defeated by the Muslim Seljuk Turks in Armenia. [Starting the slow decline of the Byzantian Empire.]


The Byzantians took back Nandorfehervar, however the Hungarians marched into Byzantian territory all the way to Nis. Salamon and Geza returned home separately due to their growing disagreements.


King Salamon went to the Germans for help against the three Princes. The Princes went to Poland, Russia and to the Czechs for help.


The civil war started between the King and the Princes. King Salamon defeated Geza's army near Kemej in Szolnok. 18 days later Geza and Laszlo princes combined army defeated Salamon King at Mogyorod in Pest County. Salamon King took refuge in Germany and asked Emperor Henrik IV for help. Prince Geza was crowned new king (1074-1077). A large number of Besenyos asked King Geza for a settlement. They were allowed to settle in the Moson-Pozsony area, a borderguard zone near the German border. King Salamon with Henrik IV's German army entered into Hungary and advanced all the way to Vac, close to Buda. As the Hungarians did before during similar invasions, they cut off supplies of the Germans and forced them to turn back unsuccesfully. Byzantian Emperor Ducas Parapinakes accepted Geza as King and sent a crown to Geza. This crown became part of the Hungarian 'Saint Crown' later.


Pope Gergely VII accepted I. Geza as King of Hungary.


I. Geza initiated peace talks with Salamon King, however I. Geza died suddenly. His brother, I. Laszlo (1077-1095) was crowned new king. - I. Laszlo released his 1st Lawbook. This law book addressed the investigation and punishment of thiefs, regulated the Nador (Palatine/Governor) and the judges, protected the king's messengers, regulated the servants, escaped servants, lost & found animals.


I. Laszlo offered military help to Rudolf 'Rival' German King against Henrik IV German King. - King I. Laszlo released his 2nd Lawbook. This law book addressed additional rules about thieves, investigation and handling of stolen property and animals, regulated merchants, limited the export of horses and oxen.


King I. Laszlo took back the Moson Fortress from Salamon. - Pope Gergely VII asked I. Laszlo to give refuge to chased away enemies of Henrik IV. German King Henrik IV invaded Hungary again, and turned back due to the same cut-off supply problems again. [Will he ever learn?] - King I. Laszlo married Adelhaid, the daughter of Rudolf 'Rival' German King.


Salamon gave up Pozsony and surrendered to I. Laszlo. I. Laszlo gave him property, but no political power.


Salamon started to organize a rebellion against I. Laszlo, but he was captured and jailed in the Visegrad Fortress.


I. Istvan King, his son Prince Imre and Bishop Gellert were declared Saints. - I. Laszlo released Salamon, who went to Germany and later to the Moldovian Besenyos.


The Besenyos invaded the upper-Tisza river area under the leadership of Kutesk. I. Laszlo defeated and chased out the Besenyos.


Pope Victor III was declared the successor of Pope Gergely VII, however German King Henrik IV selected his own pope, 'Rival Pope' Clemens III. - The Moldovian Besenyos led by Cselgu invaded the Byzantian Empire. They were defeated at Drinapoly. Ex-king Salamon who fought with the Besenyos died in battle.


Salamon's widow, Judith, married Polish Prince Herman Ulaszlo I.


Zvonimir Croatian King died in 1087. After years of bloody civil war for the throne, the King widow, Queen Ilona called his brother King I. Laszlo for help. I. Laszlo sent his army to Croatia and also annexed the neghboring Slavonia and part of Bosnia (Moesia). He crowned Prince Almos, son of I. Geza as King of Croatia. Slavonia became part of Hungary until 1918 under the name of Szlavonia. Croatia became part of Hungary until 1918 under the name of Horvatorszag. The ownership of these areas changed during the Turkish Wars. - Kun tribes lived at the Lower-Danube and Black Sea area. Kun leader Kapolcs invaded Hungary in May. The Kuns entered pillaging into Erdely, then Bihar, then the Danube-Tisza flatlandss. I. Laszlo's army returning from Croatia started to chase the Kuns. I. Laszlo caught up with the Kuns and destroyed their army at the Temes-Pogancs rivers. Later this year The Kuns sent a larger army led by Akos to avenge Kapolcs' death. (The Russians were belived to have enticed and/or paid the Kuns.) King I. Laszlo destroyed the 2nd Kun army and Laszlo himself killed Akos in the battle. - Pope Orban II claimed that Croatia was the Pope's feoff (tributary), but I. Laszlo refused to accept the Pope's claim. After this disagreement I. Laszlo started to support 'Rival Pope' Clemens III.


I. Laszlo's new Lawbook was released after the Szabolcs Zsinat (Synod or convocation). This law book limited priest marriages, protected church property, addressed rebuilding of destroyed churches, prohibited the Christening of the ethnic muslim Boszormeny people, prohibited Jews to marry Christians or to hold Christian servants, set religious holidays, regulated the tenth-collection, punished rape, unfaithfullness and pagan sacrifices, ordered withnesses and jury for court cases. - I. Laszlo sent an army into Russia to punish King Vasilko for his role in Akos' Kun invasion in 1091. The Hungarian army returned home after a peace agreement was reached.


A rebellion was started in Poland against King Herman Ulaszlo I (Salamon's widow, Queen Judith's second husband). I. Laszlo sent an army to Krakow to help Ulaszlo over the rebels.


I. Laszlo started to organize the 1st Hungarian Crusade to the Holy Land. His decision was greatly influenced 2 years earlier by French Crusader, Vilmos IV, Count of Toulouse. Due to the Czech-Moravian throne-wars, I. Laszlo postponed his Crusade. - I. Laszlo went to help Konrad Moravian Prince against Bretislav II Czech King. I. Laszlo fell seriously ill on the road, and designated I. Geza's oldest son, Konyves (Bookish) Kalman to be his successor for the Hungarian Throne. I. Laszlo died on July 29. Kalman became new king (1095-1116).


A French Crusader army led by Sansavior Valter entered Hungary, followed by German Crusaders led by Amiens Peter. Unfortunately the Crusaders started pillaging throughout the countryside until King Kalman's forces chased them out of the country to the South. The pillaging of the next Crusaders led by French Folkmar was stopped early by King Kalman in Nyitra near the Nortwestern border. Priest Gottschalk's pillaging Crusaders entered from the West, were destroyed at Feheregyhaz. Kalman stopped the next group of German/French Crusaders, Charpentier Vilmos, Vicomte of Melun and Count Emich of Leiningen at the border by Moson. The Crusaders surrounded Kalman and laid a siege of Moson. After 6 weeks Kalman broke out of the fortress and destroyed the attackers. Boullion Gottfried Lotharingian Prince arrived at the border with his Crusaders. Kalman agreed to let them pass, but only with a large Hungarian military escort until they passed Southern border.


Konyves Kalman married to the daughter of Roger I Sicilian Count. Kalman agreed to an alliance with Venetian Doge Michiele Vitalis.


Prince Almos rebelled agains King Kalman, but they reconciled after the nobles refused to go into civil war for them.


Konyves Kalman sent an army to help Russian Prince Yaroslav against his father, Sviatopolk Izyaslavich, King of Kiev. The Kuns come to the aid of the Kievi King turned Kalman's army back home. - Kalman and Bretislav II Czech King agreed to an alliance.


King 'Konyves' Kalman revised the previous kings' law books and released his new Lawbook. This law book clarified the church ownership, inheritance rules, protected land ownership, rewrote court rules, punished killers, robbers, thiefs, adulterers, kidnappers, perjury, eliminated the witch hunts, limited immigration, regulated customs duties (zoll), border passing and exports, regulated taxes, military draft, servants, revised rules for priests and churches, cemeteries, holidays and ordered the separation of Jews.


The Christian Church Laws were established by the Esztergom Zsinat (Synod or convocation). These laws applied to the churches, priests, their servants, religious property, procedures, burials and punishments. - The same year several Crusader armies passed through Hungary without major problems.


Hungarian King 'Konyves' Kalman was crowned as King of Horvatorszag (former Croatia) in Tengerfehervar.


Alliance building: Hungarian Prince Almos married Predslava, daughter of Sviatopolk Izyaslavich, King of Kiev. Prince Janos, son of Byzantian Emperor Komnenos Elek married Piroska, daughter of I. Laszlo former Hungarian King.


Prince Almos went to Passau and asked help from German-Roman Emperor Henrik IV against Hungarian King Kalman, but the Emperor did not help because of the rebellion of his own son, Henrik. Kalman King took over Southern Horvatoorszag and cities of Zara, Trau and Spalato. Dalmatia also surrendered to Kalman. - Kalman named Bishop Lorinc to be the Ban of Horvatorszag. ('Ban' was an Avar origin rank used by the leaders of the former Croatia).


Prince Almos, whose Princedom was taken by Kalman for his rebellion, went to Boleslo III Polish King for help. With Polish help, Almos took part of Abauj County. King Kalman agreed to an alliance with Boleslo III Polish King. Without further Polish support, Almos surrendered to Kalman.


King Kalman provided military help to Boleslo III Polish King against his rebelling half-brother Zbigniew.


King Kalman provided military help to the Byzantian-Venetian alliance against Normann Prince Boemund. The alliance defeated the Normanns near Apulia. Prince Almos went to Passau again and asked help from the new German-Roman Emperor Henrik V against Hungarian King Kalman. Henrik V sent an army against Hungary and started the siege of Pozsony. Czech Prince Svatopluk saw his chance and invaded Hungary in the Vag River area. King Kalman's ally, Boleslo III Polish King attacked the Czechs to help Hungary, which worked and Svatopluk returned home to defend his country. German Henrik V's siege of Pozsony was unsuccesful and he agreed to a peace with Kalman and returned home with his army. Kalman sent a punishing army to Czech Svatopluk's territory.


Svatopluk Czech Prince and his brother Otto Moravian King pillaged the Nyitra area in Upper Hungary.


After his wife's death, King Kalman married Eufemia, daughter of Vladimir Vsevolodovich Monomah Pereslav King.


Kalman's wife, the pregnant Eufemia committed adultery and was sent back to her father.


The Venezian navy attacked and took part of Dalmatia from Hungary. - King Kalman ordered the blinding of rebelling Prince Almos, his young son Bela and followers Uros, Pal and Vata. - King Kalman released his new Lawbook, addressing only the growing problems with Jews. This law book prohibited Jews from keeping trading and selling Christian servants, ordered all transactions between Jews and Christians to be in front of witnesses, in writing and sealed by both parties, provided help for the victims of Jews in these transactions. [During their history the Hungarians showed a great deal of tolerance (much greater than most other countries) towards different religious and ethnic groups (even former enemies) who were seeking sanctuary and/or settlements on Hungarian territories so one must wonder what made this LawBook a necessity] - The Church II. Zsinat released new and revised church laws ordering daily praying for the priests, prohibited the marriage of priests, ordered the excommunication of the anti-king conspirators, established marriage laws, religious holidays, punished kidnappings, including the old 'right of 1st night'.


King Kalman died, his son, II. Istvan was crowned new king (1116-1131). As a new king. Istvan's hands were full. He lost a border skirmish against Czech Prince Ulaszlo I at the Olsava River. Venetia started a new attack to take over Dalmatia and they captured Zara and Spalato city fortresses from Hungary.


King Istvan II sent his army to Dalmatia. They laid siege to Zara. The army defeated the Venetian army sent to relieve the siege of Zara, however they were not able to take the city. II. Istvan agreed to a 5-year peace with Venetia.


King Istvan II got into a disagreement with the Austrians. Istvan's army pillaged Eastern Austria, Lipot III Austrian Marque pillaged Sopron County in Western Hungary. Czech King Borivoj II also sent an army to pillage Northern Hungary.


II. Istvan married to the daughter of Normann Prince Robert of Capua.


Byzantian Emperor Komnenos Jan II defeated the Besenyos at Berhoe in Thrakia. The surviving Besenyos found refuge in Hungary. Besenyo soldiers became II. Istvan's mercenaries.


Russian King Yaroslav of Ladomer was overthrown and asked for II. Istvan's help. II. Istvan sent an army to help Yaroslav, and started a siege to take back the Fortress of Ladomer. Yaroslav died during the siege and the Hungarians saw no point continuing the attack, they returned home.


After the 5-year peace agreement with Venetia expired, II. Istvan sent his army to Dalmatia and re-took the territory from the Venetians.


The Venezian navy returned from the Holy Land and took the Dalmatian port cities from Hungary. Prince Almos and his followers escaped to the Byzantian Empire.


II. Istvan agreed to an alliance with Czech King Sobeslav I, and provided an army to the Czechs against Poland.


II. Istvan signed a peace treaty with Bishop Konrad of Salzburg. II. Istvan sent his army against the Byzantian Empire as a punishment for Byzantian attacks of Hungarian merchants and for providing sanctuary to rebel Prince Almos. II. Istvan captured Nandorfehervar (Belgrad), Barancs, Nis and Sofia. He turned back near Philippolis (Plovdiv). Prince Almos died later this year.


Byzantian Emperor Komnenos Jan II attacked Hungary with his army. They captured Barancs, Haram, Zimony and the Szeremseg.


II. Istvan received military help from his ally, the Czech-Moravian King and attacked the Byzantian Empire. He took back Barancs and the Szeremseg. First he pulled back from a direct battle with Emperor Komnenos Jan II, but then counterattacked the advancing Byzantians and almost captured the Emperor himself. II. Istvan and the Emperor signed a peace treaty later in the year.


II. Istvan became very sick and had no direct heir to the throne. The nobles selected Saul, II. Istvan's nephew, another group of nobles selected Ispan (Country-steward) Bors for the throne. II. Istvan got better and Ispan Bors was exiled to Byzantium. - Prince Almos' son, Vak (Blind) Bela married to Ilona, daughter of Serbian Zhupan Uros I.


II. Istvan died. Prince Vak (Blind) Bela II was crowned new king (1131-1141) in Szekesfehervar. - II. Bela extended the 4-year peace treaty with Bishop Konrad of Salzburg.


King Kalman's exiled wife Eufemia's son, Boris wanted the Hungarian throne for himself and recruited an army in Poland against II. Bela. II. Bela executed 68 Boris-supporting nobles in Arad. Boris's army contained Boleslo III Polish King's army, Russian mercenaries and some Hungarian followers. II. Bela's Hungarian army was supported by Austrian Count Adalbert commanding his father, Babenberg Lipot III's army. II. Bela's army defeated Boris' army by the Sajo River on July 22.


II. Bela, German-Roman Emperor Lothar II and Czech King Sobeslav I formed an alliance against Boleslo III Polish King.


Vladimir Volodarevich, Prince of Halich (Przemysl) joined the alliance against Boleslo III Polish King. Boleslo III surrendered to Emperor Lothar II without a battle.


II. Bela's army took back most of Dalmatia including Spalato.


II. Bela's son, Laszlo was named Prince of Bosnia (now under Hungarian rule).


Zsofia, daughter of II. Bela was engaged to Prince Henrik, son of German King Hohenstauf Konrad III. - II. Bela sent an army to help Yaropolk, King of Kiev in his war against the Prince of Chernigov.


II. Bela died and his son II. Geza was named new king (1141-1162)


II. Geza sent an army to help Vladimir Volodarevich, Prince of Halich, in his war against Vsevolod Olgovich, King of Kiev.


Boris, claimant to the Hungarian throne got the support of German King Hohenstauf Konrad III, Czech King Ulaszlo II and Austrian Count Henrik II. Boris captured Pozsony with a German-Austrian mercenary army. First King II. Geza purchased back Pozsony, than declared war on Austria. II. Geza took the entire Hungarian army to the Austrian border and soundly defeated Austrian Count Henrik II's Austrian-German army by the Lajta River. II. Geza chased his enemies far into Austria, until the Fischa River. - II. Geza married Eufrozina, sister of Izyaslav Mstislavich Volinsky, King of Kiev.


German King Konrad III marched through Hungary with his large Crusading army, followed by French King Louis VII's Crusaders, without incidents.


II. Geza sent an army to help his brother-in-law, Izyaslav Mstislavich Volinsky, King of Kiev, in his war against the Prince of Chernigov.


Yuri Dolgoruky Prince of Suzdal and ally of the Byzantians, overthrown Izyaslav Mstislavich Volinsky, King of Kiev. The dethroned king took refuge in Ladomer and asked II. Geza for help. II. Geza sent an army to Ladomer to help his brother-in-law. - Byzantian Emperor Komnenos Manuel I attacked the Serbian Uros Zhupan, ally of Hungary. II. Geza sent an army to help the Serbians against the Byzantians.


Izyaslav gave up his crown and the Russian Princes made a peace agreement, the Hungarians returned home. Byzantian Emperor Komnenos Manuel I defeated the combined Serbian-Hungarian army. The Serbians surrendered to the Byzantians. - The Russian Princes broke the peace agreement, so Izyaslav asked for II. Geza's help again. II. Geza sent another army to help Izyaslav, but the cold Russian winter turned them back. - The old Pound weight system was replaced by the new Marka weight system.


Vladimir, brother of Izyaslav ex-king of Kiev was engaged to daughter of Belos Croatian-Dalmatian Ban. Izyaslav retook Kiev with Hungarian help and regained his Kingdom. After the Hungarians returned home, Vladimir Volodarevich, Prince of Halich, defeated Izyaslav again. - II. Geza and Austrian Count Henrik II meet and agreed to a peace treaty.


New German-Roman Emperor Barbarossa Frederick I disclosed his plan to force Hungary into a feoff of Germany. - King II. Geza, as requested by dethroned Izyaslav again, sent a huge army to his brother-in-law's help. II. Geza and Izyaslav soundly defeated Vladimir Volodarevich, Prince of Halich, by the San River. Volodarevich pulled back to Przemysl and signed a peace treaty with Izyaslav. - While II. Geza was battling in Halich, Byzantian Emperor Komnenos Manuel I and Boris claimant of the Hungarian throne attacked Hungary in the South. They took Zimony and the Szerem area. A Hungarian army led by Belos Nador came for defense. Belos Nador attempted cut off and surround Emperor Manuel's army from the south. The Emperor relized this and pulled back to Byzantia. In the meantime Boris invaded Temes County. II. Geza returning from Halich chased Boris out of the country.


II. Geza entered the Byzantian Empire for retaliation. II. Geza and Emperor Manuel signed a peace agreement at the Lower-Danube. II. Geza made an alliance with the enemy of the Byzantian Empire, Sicilian Normann King, Roger II.


Andronikos, cousin of the Byzantian Emperor Komnenos Manuel I rebelled against Manuel and requested II. Bela's help. II. Bela agreed to help for the promise of Nandorfehervar, Barancs and Nis and started the siege of Barancs. Manuel I captured Andronikos and sent an army against II. Geza. II. Geza defeated the Emperor's army, but returned home after learning Andronikos' capture.


Byzantian Emperor Manuel I organized a new army against Hungary, but II. Geza was waiting for him at the Danube. Instead of a battle, the King and the Emperor signed a 5-year peace treaty.


Byzantian Emperor Manuel I did not wait long, he sought alliance with German-Roman Emperor Barbarossa Frederick I in a war against Hungary. Frederick declined the alliance, assumably he wanted Hungary for himself. However, Frederick agreed to an anti-Hungarian alliance with Austrian Prince Henrik II.


Prince Istvan, younger brother of II. Geza King, claimed the Hungarian throne with the help of German-Roman Emperor Barbarossa Frederick I. Prince Istvan was defeated and escaped to Germany.


II. Geza agreed with German Emperor Frederick I to supply an army to help Frederick's army against the Milano Kingdom. In exchange Frederick stopped supporting Prince Istvan against II. Geza. Prince Istvan escaped to the Byzantian Empire. II. Geza sent an army of archers to help Frederick in Milano.


The Dalmatian city of Zara broke away from Venetian rule and joined Hungary. The Venetians took Zara back with force. - Prince Istvan married Maria, niece of Byzantian Emperor Manuel I. - II. Geza's other brother, Laszlo also sought refuge in the Byzantian Empire.


Victor IV was elected Pope in Pavia, supported by the Germans, Austrians and Czechs. Alexander III was elected Pope in Toulouse, supported by France, England and Spain. II Geza refused to take a side.


II. Geza decided to support Pope Alexander III, broke his alliance with German Emperor Frederick and called his troops back from Milano. - II. Geza agreed to an anti-German alliance with French King Louis VII, and Eberhard Bishop of Salzburg. - Saxon and Vallon settlers from Flandria and the Raina area came to Hungary to settle. II. Geza gave them land to settle in the Szepesseg and in Szeben County in Erdely.


Milano capitulated to Frederick I. A group of Italian refugees from Milano allowed to settle in Hungary. - II. Geza died, and Geza's son, III. Istvan was crowned new King of Hungary (1162-1172). - Byzantian Emperor Manuel I sent II. Geza's youngest brother, Prince Istvan with an army to Hungary to claim the throne. III. Istvan took refuge in Austria. The Hungarian nobles refused to accept Prince Istvan, but accepted II. Geza's older brother, Prince Laszlo, who also returned to Hungary, to be King. So II. Laszlo was also crowned as new King of Hungary (1162-1163). II. Laszlo gave his brother Prince Istvan about a third of the country as his princedom.


II. Laszlo died suddenly. His brother, IV. Istvan was crowned new King of Hungary (1163). III. Istvan moved into the Pozsony Fortress. The Csak nobles provided him with an army. IV Istvan asked the Byzantian Emperor for help, but by the time they arrived, IV Istvan defeated the Csak nobles. On June 19 III. Istvan defeated IV. Istvan by Szekesfehervar. IV Istvan was captured and exiled to Byzantium. IV Istvan offered Hungary as a fieff to the Byzantian Empire. Emperor Manuel I marched to Nandorfehervar with his army. III. Istvan and the Emperor made a peace agreement, in which the Emperor stopped supporting IV. Istvan, married his daughter, Maria, to III. Istvan's brother Bela (Alexios), and received Croatia and Dalmatia.


The Dalmatian city Zara (again) rejected Venetian rule and joined Hungary. The Venetians unsuccesfully attacked Zara. - Both III. Istvan and IV. Istvan turned to German Emperor Frederick for support. Frederick selected III. Istvan, so IV. Istvan went to the Byzantian Emperor for help. In April IV. Istvan and Byzantian Emperor Manuel I. entered Hungary with a large army. They crossed the Danube and reached Bacs where III. Istvan's army with additional Austrian and Halich armies and King Ulaszlo II's Czech troops were waiting for them. They signed a peace agreement, in which the Byzantians kept Croatia and Dalmatia. IV. Istvan stayed in Zimony in Szeremseg (between the Lower-Danube and the Carpathians).


III. Istvan sent his army to retake Szeremseg. They laid a siege of Zimony Fortress where IV. Istvan stationed. The Byzantians sent a relief army to Zimony, but they were defeated by III. Istvan. During the siege IV. Istvan was assassinated and Zimony capitulated. After III. Istvan returned home, Byzantian Jan Ducas led an army which captured Bosnia and Dalmatia. - Venetia took the city of Zara again by force. - Byzantian Emperor Manuel I. sent another army, which recaptured the Szeremseg from III. Istvan.


Denes Ispan led a Hungarian army South and retook the Szeremseg. Prince Bela (Alexios) leading a Byzantian army marched against Denes Ispan to stop their further encroachment. The Byzantian Emperor sent 2 more armies to invade Erdely. The Vlachs (Romanians) living at the Lower-Danube, in alliance with the Byzantians sent their army to pillage in Erdely. III. Istvan and the Byzantian Emperor agreed to a truce. - III. Istvan married Agnes, Austrian Princess. - Ampud Nador led a Hungarian-Horvat (Croatian) army and defeated the Byzantians at Spalato and regained part of Dalmatia.


Byzantian Emperor Manuel I. sent a new army to recapture the Szeremseg from III. Istvan. The Byzantians defeated the defender Denes Ispan's army. A peace agreement followed, in which Hungary kept Szeremseg, but handed over Dalmatia to the Byzantians. Hungary also made a peace agreement with Venice, which lasted 15 years.


Saxon Prince Lion Henrik passed through Hungary with his Crusaders. - Byzantian Emperor Manuel I crowned his young son, Alexios, as Emperor. Emperor Manuel broke the engagement between his daughter Maria and Hungarian Prince Bela. Emperor Manuel forced Prince Bela to marry Chatillon Anna Agnes, Princess of Antioch. - Hungarian King III. Istvan died. The nobles named his brother, Prince Bela as new king. (1172-1196). - Emperor Manuel I gave an army to Bela and sent him to Hungary to claim his throne.


King III. Bela's younger brother, Prince Geza was jailed for claiming the throne for himself. - Lipot, son of Austrian Prince Henrik II married to Ilona, sister of King III. Bela. - The jailed Prince Geza escaped to Austria.


Austrian Prince Henrik II refused to hand over escaped Prince Geza to III. Bela. III. Bela with his ally, Sobeslav II Czech Prince, broke into Austria twice in order to capture Prince Geza. - III. Bela provided an army (led by Ampud Ban and Lestak Vajda) to help Byzantian Emperor Manuel I in his war against the Muslim Seldjuk Turks. The Turks were victorious in this war.


Austrian Prince Henrik II died, and Prince Geza escaped to Sobeslav II Czech Prince. [duh] Prince Sobeslav handed over Geza to III. Bela and he was prisoned again.


Austrian Prince Lipot V invaded Moravia, but he turned back due to the threat of war from III. Bela.


Byzantian Emperor Manuel I died and his son, Alexios II became new Emperor.


III. Bela sent an army to recapture Dalmatia from the Byzantians. The Dalmatian cities surrendered. The Venetian ruled city of Zara also joined Hungary, for the third time.


Prince Imre, son of III. Bela was engaged to the daughter of German Emperor Frederick I. III. Bela's army recaptured Nandorfehervar and Barancs from the Byzantians.


III. Bela, in alliance with Serbian Prince Nemanja Istvan and Kulin Bosnian Ban liberated the Nis and Sofia areas from the Byzantians.


Byzantian Emperor Alexios went on the offensive and pushed III. Bela's army back to the Barancs area. III. Bela's wife, Chatillon Anna died.


Margit, daughter of III. Bela was married to Byzantian Emperor Angelos Isaac II. - Nandorfehervar and Barancs was returned to the Byzantians as her wedding-dower.


III. Bela married to Margit Capet, sister of French King Agost Phillip II.


Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria captured the Holy Land, Jerusalem. - Venetia unsuccesfully tried to take Zara.


III. Bela seized Halich during a throne-war there and made his son, Prince Andras a Governor of Halich.


German Emperor Barbarossa Frederick I led his huge Crusader army through Hungary with support from III. Bela. Bela also freed his jailed brother, Geza to lead a small Hungarian Crusader army to accompany Barbarossa Frederick to the Holy Land. - III. Bela sent and army to Halich to help his son Prince Andras there. Andras defeated the nobles of Halich and Prince Rostislav of Smolensk who came to the Halichians help. - Barbarossa Frederick and his Crusaders caused a conflict with Byzantian Emperor Angelos Isaac II while passing through Byzantium.


III. Bela helped to negotiate a peace treaty between the German and Byzantian Emperors. - Vladimir, dethroned king of Halich, with Polish help attacked and retook Halich from Prince Andras. - Venetia and Hungary renewed their peace agreemend. - The dual-cross symbol appeared the first time in history, on III. Bela's coin. - The Arpad-family rulers were represented by stepping lions in contemporary art. - The population of Hungary was about 2 million.


III. Bela invaded Serbia and captured part of it. - Venice made another unsuccesful effort to take Zara. - I. Laszlo King was declared saint.


III. Bela named his son Prince Imre to be Governor of Horvatorszag and Dalmatia.


III. Bela agreed to an alliance with Byzantian Emperor Angelos Isaac II against Bulgaria, however the Emperor was dethroned so no military action followed.


III. Bela organized a Hungarian Crusading army but he died suddenly. His son, Prince Imre was named King (1196-1204)


III. Bela's widow, Margit, led the Hungarian Crusaders to Syria, where they joined the German Crusading army. - Prince Andras, younger brother of King Imre claimed the throne. Prince Andras with the help of Steyr Prince Lipot VI defeated King Imre at Macsek in Szlavonia. King Imre gave the princedom of Szlavonia, Horvatorszag and Dalmatia to Prince Andras.


Prince Andras expanded his princedom by defeating the Serbs at Hulm and Raska.


King Imre defeated his rebelling brother Prince Andras in battle at Rad in Somogy County. Andras escaped to Steyr Prince Lipot VI. - King Imre also stopped a rebellion organized by Mog Nador.


The Pope Ince III. made King Imre and Prince Andras to reconcile. Andras received his princedom back. - King Imre married Constancia, daughter of Alfons II Aragon King. - Prince Andras married Gertrud, daughter of Bertold IV Istrian-Meranian Prince. - Ugor (Old Hungarian) tribes remained at the Irtis and Ob Rivers were falling under Turkish rule. Other Finnugor tribes remained East of the Volga were falling under Russian rule.


King Imre sent an army to Serbia to help Vukan to overthrow his brother Istvan for the Serbian Zhupan rank. Imre became the King of Serbia.


King Imre led a military campaign against Kaloian Bulgarian Tzar. - The Venetians with help of Crusaders finally took the city of Zara and destroyed it.


Refugees from Zara took back their city from the Venetians on April 25. - In the German throne-war King Imre militarily supported King Braunschweiger Otto IV against King Schwabian Phillip.


King Imre died. His young son, III. Laszlo was crowned king. Prince Andras governed for the child king.


III. Laszlo's mother escaped with him to Austria, where III. Laszlo died. - Prince Andras was crowned king (1205-1235). - King II. Andras was asked to send an army to Halich (Galicia) to help child King Danyiil Romanovich retain his position.


The nobles of Halich overthrew King Danyiil Romanovich and put Volodimer Igorevich on the throne. The new king's brother Roman Igorevich escaped to Hungary and asked for help. Roman Igorevich overthrew his brother and became King of Halich with the help of the Hungarian army.


Schwabian Philip German King was assassinated. Suspects Henrik Istrian Marques and Eckbert Bishop of Bamberg took refuge in Hungary. - The nobles of Halich overthrew King Roman Igorevich. II. Andras sent Benedek Vajda with an army to Halich. Benedek Vajda captured Halich and stayed to govern the country. Prince Mstislav of Peresopnica attacked Benedek Vajda, but failed.


Roman Igorevich and his brother Volodimer joined forces and chased Benedek Vajda out of Halich. Volodimer became the king.


II. Andras sent military help to Boril Bulgarian Tzar against a rebellion in Vidin, Bulgaria. The leader of the Magyar army was Iwachin Ispan and it contained several ethnic units from Erdely, which included old allies, the Szekelys and newer immigrants: Saxons, Besenyos and Vlachs who were allowed to settle in Erdely. - Historian "Anonymus" wrote "Gesta Hungarorum".


II. Andras and Polish (Cracowian) King "White" Leszek sent their armies to Halich to help Danyiil Romanovich reclaim his throne from the Igorjevich family. The were succesful after taking Przemysl, Zvenigorod and Halich. - II. Andras allowed a large group of German Saxons to settle in Barcasag (Barca-Land) in South Erdely (Transylvania). In return the Saxons helped as border guards. - Princess Erzsebeth, daughter of II. Andras married to Prince Louis, son of Hermann, King of Thuringia.


King of Halich, Danyiil Romanovich was overthrown by the Vologislav family and by Mstyslav from Peresopnica and escaped to Hungary.


The Vologislav family chased Mstyslav out of Halich. - In Hungary, near Pilis, Ispan Peter, Nador Simon and Nador Bank organized a rebellion and murdered Queen Gertrud. II. Andras captured and executed Ispan Peter, exiled Nador Bank, and Nador Simon died on his own. The King confiscated all their properties. - Later II. Andras captured Nandorfehervar (Belgrad) and Baranch from Bulgaria.


II. Andras crowned his 1st son, Bela as King. - His 2nd son, Kalman married Szalome, daughter of Polish King, Leszek. - Allies II. Andras and Leszek overthrown Vologislav, King of Halich and named Kalman as new King of Halich.


Mstyslav with help from the Novgorod Kingdom chased away King Kalman from Halich. Danyiil Romanovich married Anna, daughter of Mstyslav which brought a temporary peace in Halich. - II. Andras remarried, the new Queen was Jolanta, daughter of French Count, Peter Courtenay. - Bologna University historian Paulus Hungarus wrote about Hungarian history.


Polish King White Leszek and his son-in-law, Kalman, raised an army and chased out King Mstyslav and Romanovich from Halich. Kalman became King of Halich again.


II. Andras organized and lead a Crusading Army to the Holy Land. He donated the city-state of Zara to Venice to rent their ships for transportation. Their route was Zagreb, Spalato, Cyprus, Akkon. They went through several battles with the Muslims in the vicinity of the Jordan River. While the King was away, some of the Barons attempted to take over control of Hungary and chased away the King's representative, Archbishop Janos.


II. Andras returned from the Crusade through dry land. On his way he made alliances, which were strengthened by intermarriages. His son, Bela, married to Maria, daighter of Theodor Laskaris, King of Nikaia. Andras' daughter was married to II. Asen Ivan, Bulgarian Tsar. - II. Andras took back control of the country and Archbishop Janos was reinstated.


Mstyslav and Romanovich with the help of Kotony, leader of the Kuns, took back Halich and captured King Kalman. Mstyslav and II. Andras made a peace agreement: King Kalman was freed, but lost his kingdom and II Andras' youngest son, Prince Andras married the daughter of Mstyslav.


First reports of Genghis Khan's Mongolian Army reached Europe. - II. Andras named his son, Bela, as Governor of Szlavonia, the area between the River Drava and the Adriatic Sea. (Now Slovenia and Croatia.)


Pope Honorius III ordered the Greek Orthodox churches to be converted to Roman Catholic in Hungary. - Paulus Hungarus returned from Bologna to establish the Dominican Order in Hungary. - II. Andras repossessed royal lands illegally taken by the Barons during the recent years. - French Gothic architecture started to have influence in Hungary through Villard de Honnecourt.


Paulus Hungarus sent Dominican Missionaries East to the Dnieper River, to the Land of the Kuns. Some of them were killed, others were succesful. - The King gave special privileges (privilegium fori) to the Church, including immunity from persecution and royal taxes. II Andras wrote his famous law document, a Decretum or Aranybulla: 1. Established St. Steven's Day, 2. Servants can only be punished through the Courts, 3. Church property was declared free of taxes, 4. Servants' inheritance law was created, 5. Regulated local courts, 6. & 28. Regulated the execution of court orders, 7. & 10. Established the military draft, 8. & 9. Regulated district courts, 11. & 26. Immigration laws, 12. Widows' pension was established, 13. & 14. Protected the public from pillage by barons and court officials, 15. Established protection for the servants' villages, 16. & 30. Limited rewards to the land barons, 17. Protected private property, 18. Limited the transfer of servants, 19. Declared the forts' servants and hospices' servants free, 20. & 21. Ordered the "tenth" to be paid with products, 22. Protected the property of servants, 23. Regulated coin making, 24. Prohibited the Jews to be coin makers or tariff collectors, 25. Prohibited salt hoarding, 27. Declared tax on fur trade, 29. Separated royal an court incomes, 31. Provided copies of these Laws to Church leaders and barons. - II. Andras awarded the Hungarian held area between the Southern Karpathian Mountains and the Danube River called Havasalfold [Snowy Plains in Hungarian], to the Teutonic Knights. This area was partially occupied bu the Kuns and by the Besenyos.


Pope Honorius III unsuccessfully ordered the "tenth" to be paid by money. After a coup in the Bizantian Empire, ex-empress, Margit, sister of II. Andras, and her son Janos returned from Constantionopol. Margit and Janos received the governorship of counties Keve, Bacs & Szerem. Later they conquered the Macso area near Drina. - The Mongol Army of Genghis Khan defeated the united Russian princes' army and the Kun Kings army near the Azovi lake and Kalka River. - Later that year the united army of the Bashkir Hungarians and the Volga Bulgarians defeated the Mongols in South Bashkiria.


Prince Bela conquered a Dalmatian Fort of Klissa. - II Andras awarded more privileges and liberties in a document called Andreanum to the Saxons in South Erdely (Transylvania).


Upon order of the Pope, (reason unknown), II. Andras chased the Teutonic Knights out of Havasalfold. The Teutonic Knights moved North and settled by the Baltic Sea. - VI Lipot, King of Austria & Steyr, invaded and pillaged the Nyitra area in Western Hungary. He was quickly defeated and had to pay restitution. - Pope Honorius III criticised II. Andras, because he allowed Jews and other non-Christians to be officials.


King II. Andras named Prince Bela Governor of Erdely (Transylvania), he also named Prince Kalman as Governor of Szlavonia.


The Dominican Order succesfully converted Kun princes Barc and Membrok to the Christian Fate in Kumania (Kun Land - Kun ruled Havasalfold and Moldovia together). The Kuns also accepted, without violence, II. Andras as their King. Kun Land came under the governership of Prince Bela.


Prince Bela made an unsuccessful attempt to take the Bodon (Vidin) area from Bulgaria.


Danyiil Romanovich attacked and took Halich and sent Prince Andras home. - II. Andras and Prince Bela agreed to protect Kun Land and the properties and freedom of Kuns in Kun Land. - Prince Bela and his Kuns attemted to help his brother Prince Andras to regain the Throne of Halich. Danyiil Romanovich with the help of Poland and the Kotony Kuns succesfully defended Halich. - The Franciscan Order was established in Hungary.


Prince (Vicious) II. Frederick of Austria attacked through the Wester border, but he was defeated and chased out of the country.


II. Andras published a new Decretum to supplement his 1222 Aranybulla: 1. Established public accessible "Law Days", 2. Required court order for arrests, 3. Abolished unjust taxes, 4. Protected the property of servants, 5. Set inheritance laws, 6. Regulated goverment officials and courts, 7. Prohibited lynchings, 8. Confirmed the military draft, 9. Regulated the high courts, 10. Provides protection for bailiffs, 11. Set immigration and naturalization laws, 12 Protected the innocent relatives of criminals from punishment - The Bojar of Halich asked for Prince Andras to be returned to the Throne of Halich. II. Andras and his sons Andras and Bela attacked Halich with a large army, overthrew Danyiil Romanovich and put Prince Andras back on the Throne of Halich again. - Prince Kalman allowed Germans and Saxons to settle in Szlavonia.


New Pope, IX. Gergely tried to interfere in the internal affairs of Hungary using excommunication. - Dominican Otto went researching Hungarians remained in the East for 4 years.


Queen Jolanta died. - Due to pressure from the Pope, II. Andras and his sons made an agreement with the Church: They will not allow non-Christians to hold office, Free Christian slaves owned by Jews, Allow the Church to collect their Tenth in money, Provide share of salt traffic to the Church, Allow the establishment of religious courts, Declared the Church tax exempt, Agreed to force the land barons to sign the agreement. - War broke out between Austria and Hungary. Prince Bela advanced until Hofleinig and the Austrians advanced until Deveny. II. Andras and II. Vicious Frederick of Austria signed a peace agreement and withdrew their armies. - Danyiil Romanovich with the help of the Kotony Kuns defeated Prince Andras in battle, but he held out in the Fortress of Halich. - Prince Bela was named King of Kun Land.


II. Andras remarried. His 3rd wife was Beatrix Este, who was related to Italian Count VII. Azzo Este. - Pope Gergely IX again interfered with Hungarian internal affairs. - Prince Andras died in Halich, and the throne was given to Danyiil Romanovich without a batle. This ended the Hungarian rule in Halich.


II. Vicious Frederick of Austria entered Hungary with a large army. He only reached Leka in Vas County when II. Andras, Prince Bela and Prince Kalman counter attacked. The Hungarians chased Frederick back to Vienna, and forced him to pay restitution. - King II. Andras died. His son, IV. Bela was crowned as new King. He ruled until 1270. - The Bojars of Halich overthrew Danyiil Romanovich, who escaped to Hungary seeking sanctuary. - Genghis Khan ordered his grandson, Batu Khan to prepare for the invasion of Europe.


Pregnant Queen Beatrix, widow of II. Andras, escaped to Germany. Her son, Istvan was born there, but King Bela and Prince Kalman did not acknowledged their brother. - Dominican Julianus, who located the Eastern Hungarians (Magyars) in 'Magna Hungaria', near the River Volga in Baskiria, returned to Hungary. - Batu Khan and the Mongols attacked and destroyed Baskiria (Magna Hungaria) and the Volga Bulgars (Magna Bulgaria). Scattered remains of Magyars and Bulgars escaped to the Russian territories.


The Dominicans went East to locate the scattered remaining Magyars. - Batu Khan sent a threatening letter to IV. Bela. - The Mongols started their attack against Russia. - Kalman, Prince of Slavonia, conquered Bosnia. - The Dominicans reported the Mongolian advances to the Pope.


Pope IX. Gergely ordered IV. Bela to attack Bulgaria to convert their population, however Bela refused. - Batu Khan defeated King Kotony's Kuns.


IV. Bela allowed a long time enemy, Kotony and all his remaining Kuns escaping from the Mongols, to settle in Hungary near the Tisza, Temes, Maros and Koros rivers. In return the Kuns converted to Christianity. - Bela's 1st son, Istvan was born. - Bela and the land barons agreed to reduce the concentration of Kuns and spread them out within the country.


The Tatars (tribe of the Mongols) took Kiev. - Adriatic city-state Zara rejected Venetian rule and joined the Kingdom of Hungary again.


IV. Bela reinforced the passes of the Carpathian Mountains on the Eastern border. He ordered Palatine (Nador) Denes with an army to protect the Verecke Pass. He called the remaining army to assembe near Pest. Austrian King II. Vicious Frederick also joined with his army. In March Batu Khan defeated Palatine Denes and entered the Carpathian Basin. With this, one of the most devastating era of Hungarian history was started. In Hungary it is referred to as the 'Tatarjaras' [Tatar Pillage - The Hungarians referred to all Mongolians as Tatars]. The Mongols chasing Denes reached the city of Vac and destroyed it. - Hungarian and Austrian troops suspected that the Kuns were allied with the Mongols and killed the Kun's leader, Kotony. The Kuns, ready to join the Hungarian army, turned agains them and defeated the army of Bulcsu and the army of the Erdely Saxons. The Kuns, pillaging, exited the country on the South, through the Szeremseg. II. Frederick returned his army to Austria and left IV.Bela alone. The Mongols destroyed the city of Eger and the army of Bishop Benedek. Bela started to move his army East to meet with the Mongols. Three additional Mongol armies entered Transylvania under the leadership of Khans Kada, Budzek and Borundaj. The defending Hungarian-Saxon army was defeated in Barca. The Mongols took control of Erdely (Transylvania). Khans Bajdar and Orda attacked North of the Carpathians and defeated Silezian/Polish Prince Henrik's army near Legnica. Batu Khan with his main forces defeated IV. Bela at Muhi near the River Sajo. While most of the Hungarian leaders died in the battle, Bela was able to escape to the Pozsony Fortress. His injured brother, Kalman escaped to the Segesd Fortress in Somogy County, but later he died due to the injuries. Batu Khan took Pest. Bajdar and Orda invaded Northwestern Hungary near Trencsen. - Frederick offered protection to Bela, which he accepted. Frederick captured Bela and as ransom he demanded 3 counties to be transferred to Austria. After 'payment' Bela was freed and started to reorganize the remains of his kingdom from Zagreb. He established a protective line alongside the Danube. While the Mongols had trouble crossing the wide river, they were free to roam North and East of the River Danube. They pillaged and killed as they wished, except they were not equipped well for fortress siege, so most forts and fortresses remained unharmed. In May IV. Bela requested help from Pope IX Gergely, German-Roman Emperor II Frederick, French King IX Louis and German King IV. Konrad. Only Pope Gergely promised a Crusading Army, but even that was never materialized after the Pope died. His successor, Pope Celestin the IV. died 2 weeks later.


In January IV. Bela, unsuccessfully, repeated his request for a Crusading Army. - In February Batu Khan was finally able to cross the frozed Danube. He destroyed the Capital Buda and Esztergom city, but he failed to take the Esztergom Fortress. He also failed to take the Szekesfehervar and Pannonhalma Fortresses. Kadan Khan chased King Bela to Spalato and Trau. - After the news of Ogodej Mongol Great Khan death all the Mongols quickly pull out of the country in March. They left to fight each other for the leadership. - Overall in one year the Mongols/Tatars killed about 50% of the population in Hungary. - Opportunistic II. Vicious Frederick attacked the Pozsony Fortress (Pressburg, now Bratislava), but the defenders under Baron Achilles Hont-Pazmany successfully defended it. - Baron Pal Geregye was ordered by the King to organize the restoration of the pillaged country. - IV. Bela and Baron Achilles Hont-Pazmany took back the counties taken by II. Vicious Frederick and advanced to Vienna, Austria. Frederick gave up his right to the counties he took as ransom in 1241.


Venice took back Zara by force. - Rostislav Vsevolodovich Russian Prince lost a batlle to the Mongols near Borku. He took refuge in Hungary. He married Princess Anna, daughter of IV. Bela.


IV. Bela agreed to a peace with Venetia. Venetia kept Zara but paid restitution. - Bela proceeded with the rebuilding of the country.


IV. Bela's 1st son was declared Governor of Slavonia. - Rostislav Russian Prince, Bela's son-in-law, unsuccesfully attacked Halich. Danyiil Romanovich beat him back. - IV. Bela allowed the Kuns to settle in Hungary again, now in the area between the Danube and Tisza rivers. Today these areas are still called Kiskunsag and Nagykunsag. - Bela also allowed the Jazig (Jasz/Alan/Osete) people to settle near the Tisza in the area still called Jaszsag today.


Austrian King II. Vicious Frederick attacked Bela's forces near Lajta (Wiener-Neutadt) and forced him back to the border. Frederick died in this battle and with his death the Babenberg House died out in Austria.


Due to rumors of expected Mongol attacks, fortresses were built troughout the country with the assistance of the Church. During the 1241-42 Mongol invasion, only the well built fortresses stood up to the invaders. - The Church also assited in rebuilding Havasalfold, Szeremseg and Kun Land outside the Carpathian Mountains. The Church allowed the Olati (Vlachs or Olahs, now called Romanians) from the South to settle between the Danube and the Carpathians, an area which was vacated by the Kuns. The Olati agreed to act as border guards.


IV. Bela ordered to confiscate royal lands illegally taken during the lawlessness of the Mongol Invasion.


Due to the lingering Mongol attacks, IV. Bela continued building more and larger fortresses. - Rostislav, son-in-law of Bela with a combined Polish, Hungarian and Russian armies unsuccessfully attacked Romanovich in Halich.


The Austrians pillaged the Western Hungarian counties. IV. Bela organized a counterattack with the help of the Kuns. They advanced into Austria to the Semmering Pass, and they seized the Waltersdorf and Kirschlag fortresses. - IV. Bela made an alliance with King of Halich, Danyiil Romanovich against the Mongols. Bela's daughter Constance and Romanovich's son Lev were married.


IV. Bela gave special privileges to the Jews. He established laws regarding business/trade/lawsuits between Christians and Jews. - Premysl Ottokar Moravian Count invaded Austria and he married Margaret Babenberg, the sister of the dead King, II. Vicious Frederick, and declared himself King of Austria.


IV. Bela, Danyiil Romanovich and the Kuns also invaded Austria. Prince Roman, son of Romanovich was married to Gertrud Babenberg, the dead Frederick's niece. Roman Romanovich also claimed the Austrian throne and the conflict with Moravia started.


IV. Bela and son, Prince Istvan organized a large army and with the help of the Kuns they attacked Moravia near Olmutz (Olomucz). Bela's allies Danyiil Romanovich, his son Prince Lev, Boleslo Cracow Polish King and Ulaszlo Silezian King attacked Northern Moravia near Troppau. The Moravians counterattacked Hungary in Trencsen. Bela left Olmutz and chased out the Moravians from Trencsen. Pope IV. Ince ordered IV. Bela and Count Ottokar to agree to a peace, which they did. - I. Vencel Moravian King died and his son, Ottokar became the new Moravian King. - Roman Danyiilovich gave up his claim to the Austrian Throne and the armies returned home.


IV. Bela and Moravian King II. Ottokar strengthen their peace agreement and split up Vicious Frederick's kingdom. Bela received Styria (Lower Austria) and Ottokar received Upper Austria. Bela named Gut-Keled as Governor of Styria. - Prince Istvan (son of Bela) and Erzsebet, daughter of the Kun King were merried. - Prince Rostislav of Macso conquered Bosnia.


I. Asen Michail, Tsar of Bulgaria married the daughter of Prince Rostislav. While Tsar Michail and the Emperor of Nikaia were at war, Rostislav claimed Northwestern Bulgaria for himself.


The fortress building by the King and the Church was continued, the famous Visegrad Fort was completed.


Prince Istvan was named Governor of Erdely (Transylvania). - Asen Kalman, cousin of Michail Bulgarian Tsar, killed the Tsar and captured his wife (daughter of Prince Rostislav of South Hungary). Rostislav attacked Bulgaria and took the capital, Tirnovo. He freed his daughter. II. Kalman Tsar escaped, but died in 1258. Rostislav declared himself Tsar of Bulgaria.


The barons of Styria rebelled against the Hungarian rule and chased Governor Gut-Keled out. Prince Istvan entered Styria with his army and restored the Hungarian rule. He was declared Prince of Styria.


The Styrian barons and Prince Ulrik of Karinthia started a a conflict and Ulrik became the winner. Prince Istvan and his Kun army provided help to the Styrian barons and they defeated Ulrik. - Prince Rostislav with the help of several Southwestern Hungarian barons clashed with the 'other' Bulgarian Tsar, Constantin. Rostislav kept his rule in NorthWestern Bulgaria. - Probably due to the news of excessive fortress building the Mongols offered an alliance with Hungary, confirmed with a marriage of King Bela's son and a Mongolian princess. Due to heavy pressure from Pope IV. Alexander, Bela refused the alliance with the Mongols. - The barons of Styria with the help of II. Ottokar of Moravia rebelled again and rendered homage to Ottokar, who was ruling Upper Austria.


IV. Bela and II. Ottokar agreed to a 3-moth peace, while both parties were building their armies on the opposite side of the River Morva (the river separating the 2 countries). Count Otto of Hardegg came to join Ottokar. Prince Istvan cut off the advancing Otto and defeated him. Romanovich of Halich, Boleslov of Cracow and Leszek of Poland joined Bela's army. They crossed the Morva and battled with Ottokar at Kroissenbrunn. Surprisingly they lost and agreed to a peace. King Bela gave up his rule in Styria to Ottokar and agreed that Bela's son, Prince Bela will marry Kunigunda, daughter of Otto Brandenburg. - Prince Bela was declared Governer of Slavonia. - The Kuns settled in Central Hungary agrred to convert to Christianity. - Baron Lorinc Kemeny chased out an invading Bulgarian army from the Szorenyseg.


VIII. Palaiologos Michael, Emperor of Nikaia, took Constantinopol and became Byzantian Emperor. - II. Ottokar of Moravia married Kunigunda, granddaughter of IV. Bela. - Bela and Prince Istvan led their army against Bulgaria and won several battles South of the Danube River.


Prince Istvan demanded more power from his father. They each built up their armies, but with the help of the Church they agreed to a peace. They divided the country between themselves and Prince Istvan became a Junior King (Rex Iunior). Istvan was also named the 'Ruler of Kuns' (Dominus Cumanorum). - Prince Rostislav died. His son Michael became ruler od Bosnia, his other son became ruler of Macso and Northern Bulgaria was given to Russian Jacob Sventslav.


Constantin Tsar of Bulgaria in alliance with VIII. Palaiologos Michael Byzantian Emperor sent their armies to push out Jacob Sventslav form Northern Bulgaria. Junior King Istvan and Miklos Gut-Keled led their armies to defend Jacob Sventslav. The Hungarians advanced through Bulgaria into Byzantium and defeated the Emperor. Sventslavs territory was saved.


The Mongols again offered an alliance to IV. Bela, and a marriage to confirm the alliance. Pope IV. Orban ordered Bela not to accept the alliance. - The Pope ordered Junior King Istvan to return several counties which were titled to his mother, Queen Maria and to his sister Princess Anna, but he refused. IV. Bela and Princess Anna attacked Istvan's territory. They captured Istvan's wife, Kun Erzsebeth and their children. Istvan pulled back to Erdely (Transylvania). Finally Istvan's Baron Peter Csak held on to Deva and took back Baranka. Still, Istvan was surrounded in Feketehalom in Barca. Istvan's other army led by Panyit came for the relief and defeated the King's forces at Feketehalom. Junior King Istvan united his armies and headed NorthWest. He defeated the Kun army led by the King's loyalist, Menk. At the River Tisza Istvan's army defeated another army of Bela. He crossed the Tisza and with the full force of his army, headed towards Pest. - Turncoat North Bulgarian Ruler Jacob Sventslav in alliance with Bulgarian Constantin and Byzantian Michael invaded the Szorenyseg during the Hungarian civil war.


In their final, decisive battle Junior King Istvan's army defeated IV. Bela's army at Isaszeg near Pest. With the help of Church officials father and son agreed to peace. All captured family members and military leaders were freed and the previously agreed border was reestablished between them.


Junior King Istvan led a punishing campaign against turncoat Jacob Sventslav in Northern Bulgaria. Istvan defeated Sventslav in 5 battles until finally Sventslav rendered homage to Istvan.


A decretum was signed by the King and Junior King providing the barons of the whole country with protection and privileges, including tax exemption.


Pope IV. Clemens rejected IV. Bela's decretum due to his concern about the Church's tenth. - I. Uros Serbian King invaded Macso. IV. Bela's army defeated Uros and captured him. They agreed to a peace and Uros' son Stephan Dragutin married Katalin, Istvan's daughter.


IV. Bela's son, Prince Bela, Governor of Szlavonia died. - Junior King Istvan made an alliance with I. Carlo, King of Sicili, primarily against II. Ottokar Czech/Moravian King. They confirmed it with a double marriage of their children: Prince Laszlo married Princess Isabella Anjou in Hungary and Prince Carlo Anjou married Princess Maria in Naples. - III Ulrik, Prince of Karinthia died. In his will he named II Ottokar to inherit Karinthia. Philip, brother of Ulrik also claimed the Karinthian throne.


IV. Bela's daughter, Princess Margit died. She was declared a Saint, and an island (Margit Sziget) in the Danube was named after her. - IV. Bela also died. Junior King Istvan became the new king as V. Istvan. V. Istvan replaced most officials previously nominated by his father. Afraid of a possible retaliation several relatives of the dead king and several barons loyal to the dead king went to Moravia and asked for sanctuary from II. Ottokar. A large section of Western Hungary was given to Ottokar. - Widow Queen Maria died. - V. Istvan and II. Ottokar agreed to a 4-month peace treaty. - V. Istvan agreed to an alliance with Polish King V. Boleslo of Cracow against Ottokar. - Baron Miklos Hahot brought a German army into the Poloske Fortress in Zala. Prince Aladar, son of Istvan defeated and captured the rebel baron. - After the treaty expired, V. Istvan attacked and recaptured the territories given to Ottokar by the rebelling barons. His Hungarian and Kun army advanced into Austria, passed by Vienna to the Semmering Pass. His baron, Gergely Monoszlo advanced into Styria.


II. Ottokar Moravian King started his counterattack. He captured Deveny, Stomfa, Pozsony, Szentgyorgy, Bazin, Vorosko, Nagyszombat and Nyitra fortresses and reached the Garam River. Ottokar defeated Istvan in battles at Pozsony and Moson. Istvan's army was pulled back to the Rabca River. Ottokar captured Ovar and Moson. Finally at the Rabca V. Istvan achieved a decisive victory over Ottokar. The Moravians pulled back, and the Hungarians chased them all the way to Brunn (Brno) in Moravia. With the Pope's help Istvan and Ottokar made a peace agreement. The original border was restored and Istvan agreed not to support Philip in Karinthia against Ottokar.


V. Istvan died. His son, 10-year old "Kun" IV. Laszlo was crowned new King. His mother, "Kun" Erzsebeth governed the country until 1277. - Henrik Heder murdered Prince Bela, grandson of IV. Bela. Bela's Southern Hungarian lands were divided up and distributed by the barons. - A Vlach Vajda, Lytuay invaded the Havasalfold. The king sent Baron Gyorgy Baksa with an army, who defeated the invaders and killed Lytuay.


Baron Mate Csak, Governor [Ban] of Szlavonia, invaded Styria, Karinthia and Austria. To retaliate Csak's attack, the Austrians and Moravians attacked Hungary. The Austrians captured Gyor, Veszprem and Szombathely, while other fortresses repelled the attacks. The Moravians captured Nyitra, but lost at Gimes. - Hungarian barons Egyed and Gergely Monoszlo of Pozsony broke their alliance with Ottokar and joined I. Kun Laszlo. - The King's army led by baron Joakim Gut-Keled took back Gyor. - II. Ottokar organized a larger army and renewed his attack. He captured Pozsony, Nagyszombat, Ovar, Gyor and Sopron, but then he lost battles at Pannonhalma, Pereszteg, Lozs, Kabold and Vulka. Joakim Gut-Keled took back Nagyszombat and defended Detreko Fort against Ottokar. - The German barons elected Rudolf Habsburg to be German King. II. The Era of the Hasburgs started. - Ottokar refused to accept Rudolf.


The weakness of King IV Laszlo and his mother Erzsebet allowed the barons a chance to grab power. The Gut-Keled barons captured Laszlo and Erzsebet. Loyal baron Peter Csak freed the King and the Mother Queen. The Gut-Keleds captured Prince Andras, brother of the King. They assembled their army in Szlavonia. The barons loyal to the King also assembled their army with the leadership of Peter Csak. The loyalist barons defeated the rebel barons at Bokenysomla in Fejer County. The Csak barons took over the high positions in the Kingdom. - Rudolf German King stripped II. Ottokar of his ownership of Styria, Austria, Karinthia and Krajna. - The loyalist barons continued their attacks agains the rebel barons in SouthWest Hungary. - IV. Kun Laszlo and I. Rudolf Habsburg signed an alliance. Prince Andras, Laszlo's brother married Clemencia, daughter of Rudolf.


The Gut-Keled barons and the Csak barons continued their civil war in SouthWest Hungary.


The barons continued their civil war, and more barons got involved at both sides. - II. Ottokar Moravian King refused to release the territories demanded by I. Rudolf German King, so Rudolf declared war. I. Rudolf invaded Austria and surrounded Vienna. IV. Laszlo, in alliance with Rudolf also sent an army into Austria. Facing defeat, II. Ottokar signed a peace agreement. He returned all territories demanded by Rudolf and returned the Western Hungarian counties he captured and still held since 1273. II. Ottokar remained King of Moravia and the Czech Lands.


Baron Stephen Vodicsai Babonich rebelled In Szlavonia. Joakim Gut-Keled, Governor of Slovenia tried to put down the rebellion, but he lost and died in the battle. - I. Carlo Anjou, King of Sicily sent an army to help IV Laszlo against the rebelling Vodicsai barons. - IV. Laszlo was emancipated. - IV. Laszlo led his 1st army attack agains rebel baron Miklos Heder of Koszeg. - The King sent baron Finta Aba against rebel barons Mark Lorand and Gregen Geregye in the Szepesseg. Finta defeated them and Lorand died in the battle.


I. Carlo Anjou defeated the Vodicsai barons and their allies. The losers signed a peace agreement and accepted IV. Laszlo as King. - The King's younger brother, Prince Andras died. - IV. Laszlo sent Archbishop Miklos Kan against rebel baron Miklos Geregye. Rebels Gregen Geregye and Tamas Kanyi were beheaded. - IV. Laszlo made peace with baron Istvan Gut-Keled. - Alllies I. Rudolf Habsburg and IV. Kun Laszlo (and his Kuns) assembled a large army against II. Premysl Ottokar Czech/Moravian King. The famous battle was fought on August 26 at Morvamezo (Durnkrut) resulting with a decisive victory over Ottokar. Ottokar died in the battle, which ended the Czech's claim and the 32-year war they fought for the Austrian Babenberg territory. This battle also established the new Habsburg House as the major power in the region. - The warring barons in SouthWestern Hungary finally agreed to a peace treaty.


Kun Laws were established, which included privileges (self-governing) and protections given to the Kuns, declaration of responsibilities of the Kuns, and any remaining non-Christian Kuns were converted. - The Church Council (Zsinat or Synod) declared more strict rules for its members. - Pope III. Michael excommunicated IV. Laszlo for not following the Pope's requests regarding non-Christians, including the Kuns and Jews.


IV. Laszlo captured the Pope's legate, and presented them to the Kuns. Finta Aba Governor (Vajda) of Erdely captured IV. Laszlo King. Laszlo agreed to abide with the Pope's request, and he was freed. The legate was also freed. - IV. Laszlo stopped a small Kun rebellion in Szerem.


The barons and the bishops of Szlavonia were fighting each other. - IV. Laszlo led a military campaign against rebel baron Finta Aba. He captured Gede, Gonc and Szalanc Fortresses and defeated the rebellion.


A group of Kuns rebelled in Csanad County under the leadership of Oldamur. IV. Laszlo defeated them in the 'Hod Lake Battle'. The surviving rebels left the country. - I. Rudolf Habsburg German King gave Austria and Styria to his son, prince Rudolf. - Slavic (Czech and Polish) people escaping famine in the countries were allowed to settle in Northern Hungary (now Slovakia).


Historian Simon Kezai wrote his chronicle, Gesta Hungarorum, about the Hun-Hungarian history. - IV. Kun Laszlo started a military campaign against remaining rebel baron Ivan Heder of Koszeg.


While IV. Laszlo laid siege of the Borostyan Fortress, the Heder barons attacked the Pecs Fortress. After the unsuccessful sieges Laszlo and the Heder barons made peace.


A long expected 2nd Mongol invasion started in February. The Mongol/Tatar forces entered the country through the Verecke Pass. Khan Telebuga turned North to pillage NorthEastern Hungary and Khan Nogaj turned South to pillage Erdely. While they quickly advanced towards Pest, baron Amade Aba defeated the Mongols in Abauj County and baron Gyorgy Baksa defeated them at Regec. Khan Telebuga pulled back to Erdely to unite with Khan Nogaj. Lorand Borsa, Governor of Erdely won a decisive victory over both Khans. A huge number of Mongols were captured. By March the remaining Mongols were chased out of Hungary. - Polish King 'Black' Leszek asked and received an army from IV. Laszlo against II. Conrad, prince of Czersk. The Polish-Hungarian army defeated Conrad and Leszek regained his Cracow and Sandomir territories. - I Albert, Prince of Styria pillaged Vas County. The 4 Heder baron brothers defeated Albert at the Borostyan Fortress and they signed a peace treaty and an alliance against IV. Laszlo. - IV. Laszlo freed the captured Mongols and hired them as mercenaries. The King used the Mongols to help defeat a rebellion by Szepesvar.


IV. Kun Laszlo started another military campaign against rebel Heder barons of Koszeg. While Laszlo captured the Koszeg Fortress, the Heder barons captured Pozsony. Soon after baron Janos Peter recaptured Pozsony for the King.


The Heder brothers' and Lorand Borsa's combined army defeated IV. Laszlo's army by the Zsitva River. I. Albert of Austria, claimed to 'help' IV. Laszlo, captured Pozsony and held it for 4 years. - The Mongols started a campaign in Poland. King Black Leszek asked for help from IV. Laszlo. He sent 'Mongol-Beater' baron Gyorgy Baksa with his army to help defend Poland.


Barons of Szepes captured King IV. Laszlo, but he was freed a month later. the King agreed to give more privileges and power to the Church and his excommunication was anulled. However the King did not follow up with his promises, so he was excommunicated again and a Crusade was called by Bishop Lodomer against Hungary and the Mongols.


Prince of Austria, I. Albert turned against the Heder barons. He captured 30 fortresses in Vas, Sopron and Moson Counties. Finally Albert captured the capital fortress, Koszeg of the Heders'. IV. Laszlo, due to his conflicts with the Heders, did not send any relief forces to protect them from Albert.


Baron Istvan Balog-Semjen captured Tokaj from rebelious baron Amade Aba. - Rebelling Kun leaders Arboc, Tortel and Kemence captured and killed the King, IV. Laszlo. Palatine (Nador) Mizse captured and executed the killer Kun leaders and their group. - Prince Andras, grandson of II. Andras was called home by Bishop Lodomer and was crowned new King as III. Andras. He ruled until 1301. - German King I. Rudolf Habsburg 'awarded' Hungary to his son, Prince Albert of Austria. [Interesting how Rudolf 'forgot' that IV. Bela and the Hungarians helped him to gain Austria and Styria by defeating II. Ottokar 12 years ago]. - III. Andras published his Decretum, which included: Restoration of Church properties, Prohibited land awards to foreigners, Reinforced awarded lands given to barons by IV Bela and V. Istvan, Revised awarded lands given by IV. Laszlo, Regulated Civil and Religious Courts, Revised tariffs, Ordered the yearly national meeting of the barons. - III Andras married Princess Fenenna, daughter of Kujavian Ziemomysl. - An impostor claiming to be III. Andras entered the country from Poland. He was defeated by the army of baron Gyorgy Baksa. The impostor was executed later in Poland by Hungarian agents.


Pope IV. Michael notified I Rudolf of Germany that he cannot 'award' Hungary to his son, Albert, because Hungary 'belongs' to the Pope. - The Hungarians recaptured Vas County which was invaded and held by Austrian Prince Albert in 1289. - II. Carlo Anjou, King of Naples laid claim to the Hungarian Throne, because his wife, Queen Maria was the sister of the late IV. Laszlo. - III. Andras requested the return of Western Hungarian counties remaining in Austrian Prince Albert's hands. He was refused so he organized a military campaign to retake those countries. - III. Andras' army advanced to Vienna and forced Albert to return the Hungarian counties he held.


II. Carlo Anjou of Naples and his Queen Maria requested that former rebel baron Ivan Heber declare war on III. Andras. Queen Maria 'awarded' the Hungarian crown to her son, Prince Carlo Martell. II. Carlo of Naples ordered the Hungarian Church to accept his son, Prince Carlo Martell as King of Hungary. Prince Carlo Martell 'awarded' Szlavonia to Serbian Prince Laszlo Dragutin to gain the Serbian alliance against III. Andras. - Baron Miklos Heder rebelled and captured Pozsony from III. Andras, however Baron Mate Csak quickly recaptured Pozsony. - II Carlo awarded Horvatorszag (Croatia) to Governor Pal Subic Brebiri for his alliance.


III. Andras awarded Szlavonia to his mother Queen Tomasina Morosini. He also awarded Horvatorszag to Governor Pal Subic Brebiri for his alliance. - Serbian Prince Laszlo Dragutin married III. Andras' niece Kontancia Morosini.


III. Andras defeated rebelling barons in the Fenes and Adorjan Fortresses in Bihar County. Queen Tomasina, with the help of baron Miklos Heder captured the Szekcso Fortress in Barnya County.


Prince Carlo Martell died. - Queen Fenenna III. Andras' wife died. - Queen Tomasina's forces crossed the River Szava and defeated rebelling Vodicsai Babonic Radoslav.


III. Andras married Princess Agnes, daughter of I. Albert Habsburg Austrian Prince. - III. Andras organized an army against rebelling baron Ivan Heber. With the help of I. Albert, they captured the Koszeg Fortress from Ivan Heber.


The 3rd Mongolian invasion took place, now from the South. Baron Ugrin Csak defeated the Mongols and chased them out of Macso.


III. Andras provided an army to I. Albert against German King Adolf. The Austrian and Hungarian armies defeated King Adolf in Gollheim near the River Raina. - During the Hungarian National Assembly of the barons and church leaders, they made a Declaration: They all accepted III. Andras as King, Agreed to return confiscated lands, Ordered the King to recapture lands lost to foreign powers, Established a Council for the King, Regulated Church rights and inheritance laws, Punished money counterfeiters. - The Kings' Council made Declarations: Regulated Court rules and punishments, Establishment punishment of tax evaders, Provided rights for the serfs (jobbagy), Regulated payrate of officials.


III. Andras' uncle, Prince Albertino Morosini moved to Hungary. He was given Szlavonia to rule. The Hungarian barons accepted him as a new baron. - Land-Steward (Ispan) Demeter Balassa led army captured Ujvar Fortress in Nyitra County from Baron Mate Csak.


II. Carlo, King of Naples, sent his grandson, Robert (Carlo) Karoly to Hungary with future throne inspiration. - III Andras reconciled with baron Mate Csak and the Heder barons Ivan, Miklos and Henrik.


III. Andras died in Buda. He died without a male heir. With his death the Hungarian Arpad House, which ruled for over 400 years, died out. Queen Agnes moved to Austria, and Switzerland, where she died in 1364. - Archbishop Gergely Bicskei crowned Robert Karoly Anjou as new King of Hungary in Esztergom. Pope VIII. Bonifac supported Robert Karoly as legitimate King. - The barons and pontiffs did not want Robert Karoly, so they called in Czech Prince Vencel Premysl and crowned him King of Hungary in Szekesfehervar using the original House of Arpad Crown. Vencel used the 'Laszlo' name in Hungary.


Pope VIII. Bonifac called both Kings to the Vatican to prevent the impending civil war. Instead, Robert Karoly and his followers attacked Vencel in Buda, but Ivan (Heder) Koszegi defended Buda.


IV. Phillip French King captured Pope VIII. Bonifac near Rome. One of his escort was Hungarian Archbishop Gergely Bicskei, who was executed by IV. Phillip.


II. Vencel Czech King entered Hungary with his army to help his son (Laszlo) Vencel to keep the Hungarian Throne. - Robert Karoly and his followers made an alliance with III. Rudolf Habsburg Austrian Prince against Czech King II. Vencel. Baron Mate Csak also joined the alliance. - King II. Vencel and his son (Laszlo) Vencel returned to defend the Czech Land. - The allies proceeded with their attacks on the Czehs. - I. Lokietek Ulaszlo Polish King with the help of baron Amade Aba led an army to retake Polish lands captured previously by II. Vencel.


Czech King II. Vencel died. His son, III. Vencel was declared Czech and Hungarian King. - III. Vencel signed a peace treaty with German King I. Albert. He renounced the Hungarian Crown to the benefit of III. Otto, Bavarian Prince, who was the grandson of IV. Bela and son of Queen Erzsebet. - Albertino Marosini, Prince of Szlavonia died. - III. Otto entered Hungary, and he was crowned King of Hungary in Szekesfehervar. - The Kings and their supporters agreed to a peace treaty.


King Robert Karoly married Maria, daughter of Prince Casimir of Beuthen and Teschen. - III. Vencel Czech King was assassinated in Olmutz (Olomucz). With his death the Czech Premysl Dynasty died out.


After the peace treaty expired, the civil war started. King Robert Karoly's supporters captured Esztergom and Buda. Pope V. Kelemen declared his support of King Robert Karoly. - While King Otto was in Erdely, Governor Laszlo Kan captured King Otto. - The National Assembly accepted King Robert Karoly as King of Hungary. - King Otto was freed. He left the original St. Istvan Crown behind, left Hungary and returned to his homeland, Bavaria. He never officially renounced the Hungarian Crown.


Ivan (Koszegi) Heder died. - The Pope sent tax collectors to Hungary. - The strongest of the opposing barons, Mate Csak accepted Robert Karoly as King. - The National Assembly named him I. Karoly King. He ruled until 1342.


The remaining Heder barons swore royalty to I. Karoly. Soon after Baron Heder Henrik of Koszeg died. While the St. Istvan Crown was still in Erdely, the Pope sent a new crown to I. Karoly. He was crowned in Buda.


Laszlo Kan, Governor of Transilvania accepted I. Karoly as King, and returned the original St. Istvan Crown he took from Otto in 1307. I. Karoly was crowned the 3rd time. - The strong barons, Mate Csak and Amade Aba increased their territories by capturing territory from their weaker neighboring barons.


Baron Mate Csak unsuccessfully attacked Buda. - Amade Aba's rule was expanded to include 8 of the 52 counties in Hungary. However, after capturing Kassa, the citizens rebelled and killed him. The Amade sons made an alliance with baron Mate Csak. - The city-country of Zara rebelled against the Venice rule and became the protectorate of I. Karoly King.


The Barons of Koszeg made an alliance with III. Frederick Habsburg King. - The Amade sons attacked Sarospatak. - I. Karoly assembled a large army. He earned a decisive victory over the Amade sons and recaptured most of the Amade held counties. - Venice took Zara by force.


I. Karoly recaptured the Deveny Fortress from Austria.


III. Habsburg Frederick made an alliance with baron Mate Csak against Czech King Jan Luxemburg.


Jan Czech King unsuccessfully attacked baron Mate Csak's territory. - I. Karoly recaptured Visegrad from Mate Csak. - The Serbian Subic barons attacked Trau and Sebenico in Dalmatia.


I. Karoly started a military campaign against the strong barons. He attacked the Koszegi Heber barons in Tolna and Barany a counties. The King's Land-Steward Dozsa Debreceni defeated Kopasz Borsa at Debrecen. Dozsa also captured the Adorjan Fortress, and captured Kopasz Borsa in Solyomko. I. Karoly captured Koszeg. The King's army defeated the rebel barons Mojs, the Akos sons and Peter Petenye. Istvan Dragutin, Ban (Governor) of Macso, Kucso and Ozora died. His son, Laszlo Dragutin was named new Ban. Pope XXII John also declared Laszlo Dragutin as 'Legal King of Serbia' against II. Stephan Uros.


The Amade sons again rebelled against I. Karoly. The King defeated them in battle and confiscated all their holdings. - Baron Mate Csak captured the Nyitra Fortress. I. Karoly organized a military campaign against Baron Csak Mate and captured the Komarom Fortress. - I. Karoly's wife, Queen Maria died. - The King's army defeated rebel barons Borsa Beke and Borsa Bekcs. - Serbian King II. Stephan Uros invaded Macso and captured the Nandorfehervar Fortress (now Belgrad) from Hungary. he also captured Laszlo Dragutin, Ban of Macso.


I. Karoly organized a National Council. - The King married Princess Beatrix, daughter of Czech King Jan Luxemburg. - The Church leaders complained to Pope XXII. John about I. Karoly trimming their power and properties.


I. Karoly's army led by Sandor Kocski defeated the Barons of Koszeg. The barons lost most of their holdings. - I. Karoly led an army against Serbian King II. Stephan Uros and recaptured Macso and Nandorfehervar. - I. Karoly's 2nd wife Queen Beatrix died. - Dozsa Debreceni, Governor of Erdely (Transylvania) defeated rebel Baron Mojs.


I. Karoly married his 3rd wife, Princess Erzsebet, daughter of Polish King, I. Lokietek Ulaszlo. - The King declared Istvan Kotromanic to be Governor of Bosnia.


I. Karoly defeated Baron Peter Petenye in Zemplen and confiscated his property. He was the last rebelling baron in Northern Hungary. - The strongest rebel baron, Mate Csak died. Miklos Gud-Keled led the Kings army to recapture Mate Csak's holdings located in NorthWest Hungary. He took 4 fortresses by force. The remaining 24 fortresses capitulated and joined the King. - Serbian King II. Stephan Uros died.


Uros' son was named new Serbian King III. Stephan Uros. The new Serbian King was seeking peace with I. Karoly. - In Dalmatia Sebenico and Trau cities started a war against Mladen Subic. The Bosnian Governor, Istvan Kotromanic provided help to the cities, and they defeated Subic. The allies took back part of Dalmatia from Subic's rule. I. Karoly warned Venetia not to get involved in the Dalmatian war. - The King gave an army to Austrian King III Habsburg Frederick against German King Bavarian IV. Louis. The German King protected his throne in the Muhldorf Battle.


Janos Babonic, Governor of Szlavonia rebelled against I. Karoly. The King sent Miklos Gut-Keled to restore order. Miklos Gut-Keled defeated Babonic, and he was declared new Governor of Szlavonia. - I. Karoly mediated a peace treaty between Czech King Jan and Habsburg Prince I. Lipot.


Venetia (Venice) took control of Dalmatian cities Sebenico, Zara, Trau and Nona. - King I. Karoly lifted the Nobles of Erdely and Szlavonia to the level of the Hungarian Nobles. - Basarab, leader of Havasalfold captured the Szoreny territory. I. Karoly defeated Basarab and took back control of Szoreny. - Laszlo Dragutin made a failed attempt to take the Serbian Throne from III. Stephan Uros.


I. Karoly took complete control of the mints and making silver and gold coins.


The Barons of Koszeg and the Babonic Barons rebelled. The King's army led by Sandor Kocski captured 4 fortresses and Governor Mikcs of Szlavonia captured 5 fortresses from the rebels.


The Babonic Barons signed a peace treaty with Governor Mikcs of Szlavonia. - I. Karoly and Czech King Jan agreed to an alliance against the Habsburgs.


The Hungarian and Czech armies joined forces and defeated the Habsburgs in the Lajta Battle. I. Karoly and the Habsburgs signed a peace treaty in Bruck. The Habsburgs returned Pozsony and other Hungarian territories they still held.


The exiled sons of Laszlo Kan organized small incursions into Hungary from Havasalfold with the help of Vajda Basarab.


Felician Zach made an unsuccessful attemt to assassinate I. Karoly. Zach was executed. - Polish King I. Lokietek Ulaszlo retaliated against the Teutonic Knights looting in Eastern Poland. In the meantime Czech King Jan invaded Western Poland. I. Karoly sent an army to Western Poland to help his father-in-law, the Polish King. - I. Karoly led a retaliating army against Vajda Basarab and recaptured Szoreny. The King chased Basarab into Havasalfold, where Basarab defeated the King near Posada in a 3-day battle. - The population of Hungary is 2 million. It is the same number Hungary's population was under III. Bela 140 years earlier.


III. Stephan Uros Serbian King died. His son, Stephen Dusan became new King of Serbia. He formed an alliance with Basarab of Havasalfold and with the King of Bulgaria against I. Karoly.


I. Karoly confiscated forts in Nyitra County from the late rebel Mate Csak's heirs. - The King established a 'war tax'. - The Pope's tax collectors were taking one tenth of the Church's tenth in Hungary.


I. Karoly negotiated the marriage of his son, Prince Andras to Johanna, granddaughter of I. Robert Anjou, King of Naples. In addition, I. Robert declared Andras to be the heir of his Throne.


I. Karoly of Hungary, III. Kasimir of Poland and Jan Czech King meet and agreed to form an allliance in Visegrad. They agreed not to attack each other and to protect each other in case one is attacked. The 3 kings' alliance was soon joined by the Teutonic Knights, I. Rudolf Saxon King and III. Boleslo Silezian King. They called it the 'Visegrad Contract'. The leaders also made trade agreements.


The rebellious Koszeg Barons and Babonic Barons along with Habsburg Princes II. Albert and Otto were unhappy with the Visegrad Contract and made their own alliance against the Visegrad Contract members. Jan Czech King started a military campaign against the Habsburgs. I. Karoly and III. Casimir Polish King joined Jan with their armies against the Habsburgs. They united their considerable forces at Marchegg. The warring parties signed a temporary peace treaty in Enns.


After the peace treaty expired I. Karoly attacked the Habsburgs. He recaptured the Murakoz area and defeated the Koszeg and Babonic Barons. A new peace treaty was signed.


I. Karoly ordered advanced financial reforms. - Prince Lajos, son of I. Karoly was engaged to Countess Margit, daughter of Moravian Count Karel.


III. Kasimir Polish King who had no male heir to his throne, offered the inheritance of his throne to the sons of I. Karoly and Karoly agreed that his son as King, will uphold all rights and privileges of the Polish people. - Stephan Dusan Serbian King invaded and captured Macso and Kucso territories.


Johann, Count of Tirol negotiated a peace agreement between I. Karoly and the Habsburg Princes.


King I. Karoly died. His son, Lajos was crowned new King of Hungary as I. (Great) Lajos (1342-1382). - I. Lajos recaptured Macso and Kucso territories from the Serbians.


I. Robert Anjou, King of Naples died. As the Throne of Naples was promised to Prince Andras, he and his mother Queen Erzsebet traveled to Pope VI. Clemens to ask the Pope to crown Andras as King of Naples. Robert Anjou's widow Queen Sancia and daughter Johanna, who was the wife of Andras, joined them at the Vatican.


I. Lajos assembled an army to attack Sandor Vajda, son of Basarab in havasalfold. Sandor Vajda qickly accepted I. Lajos as King. - Moravian Count Karel organized a Crusade against the pagan Lithuanians. Hungarian I. Lajos, French Prince Peter Bourbon, Count Gunther of Schwarzburg, VI. William of Holland, Albert of Nurenberg and the Teutonic Knights contributed armies to the Crusade. The Crusaders and the Lithuanians fought an undecided battle at Vilnius. The Crusaders returned home. - Miklos Banffy, Governor of Szlavonia laid a siege to the Knin Fortress in Horvatorszag (Croatia), without success.


Czech King Jan and his son Karel broke the 1335 Visegrad Contract and invaded Poland. I. Lajos sent an army to help Polish King III. Kasimir defend Cracow. - Subic and other barons in Horvatorszag rebelled, so I. Lajos sent an army to Horvatorszag and laid a siege to the Bihacs Fortress. The Horvat barons surrendered. Also, the City-State of Zara again rejected the Venetian rule and joined Hungary. The Venetian forces laid siege on Zara on land and sea. - Due to the news of the Mongols coverging in Moldovia I. Lajos ordered Szekely Ispan Andras Lackfi to assembe an army and attack the Mongols. The army consisting of Szekely people destroyed the Mongolian army in Moldovia. - Pope VI. Clemens finally agreed to crown Prince Andras as King of Naples. Prince Andras was assassinated by the order of his wife Johanna, near Naples. Johanna gave birth to Andras' son, named Karoly Martell. The baby was considered King of Naples. - Istvan Kotromanic Governor of Bosnia and Miklos Banffi, Governor of Szlavonia sent relief armies to protect Zara from the Venetians. - King I. Lajos completed his prearranged marriage to Countess Margit, daughter of Moravian Count Karel.


I. Lajos requested the Pope VI. Clemens to punish Prince Andras' killers in Naples and declare him, I. Lajos as King of Naples, because he is the oldest qualifying Anjou House heir. - I. Lajos joined the relief war at Zara. The Venetians bribed some of I. Lajos' captains and in the chaos Lajos lost the battle. Zara City surrendered to the Venetians.


I. Lajos reorganized his army and started a military campaign for the Throne of Naples. Nador Miklos Giletfi joined him.


I. Lajos easily defeated the army of Naples at Capua. Some of the Prince Andras murder conspirators were captured and executed, others, including widow Johanna escaped. I. Lajos took the title of King of Naples and Sicily. I. Lajos returned to Hungary and left Ulrik Wolfhardt as Governor of Naples. - I. Lajos signed an 8-year peace treaty with Venice. Venice agreed to allow free pass to the Hungarians between Hungary and Naples. The killer princess Johanna married her conspirator Prince Louie of Taranto. After Johanna's property donations to Pope VI. Clemens, the Pope declared Louie as King of Naples. Louie Taranto organized an army against the Hungarians remaining in Naples. The Hungarians pulled back to Manfredonia. Istvan Lackfi Governor of Erdely led a large army to the protection of the Hungarians in Naples. - I. Lajos signed a pact with Genova (enemy of Venice) and the Genovan's promised their Navy to assist I. Lajos if needed.


Louie Taranto took Capua, Averse and Sessi from the Hungarians. Ulrik Wolfhardt Governor of Naples left his post and returned to Hungary. Istvan Lackfi's army defeated Louie Taranto's army at Troja. Lackfi went on the attack and captured Corneto and Capua. Aversa and other cities surrendered to Lackfi. Heading towards naples Lackfi defeated Taranto in their 2nd battle. The Pope arranged a peace treaty between the warring parties. - Istvan Lackfi's Saxon mercenaries left Naples. - Queen Margit died in the raging Bubonic Plague.


I. Lajos started his 2nd military campaign to Naples. Teano and Baletta surrendered. Bari was captured in a few days siege. The King's Marshal (Udvarmester) Lestak Lorantffy joined the King with another army. I. Lajos' army consisted of 15,000 Hungarian, 8000 German cavalry and 4000 Italian infantry. Pope VI. Clemens ordered the Italian States to support Queen Johanna against I. Lajos. I. Lajos captured Naples. Queen Johanna and Louie Taranto escaped to Gaeta by sea. - Andras Lackfi was named Governor of Naples. I. Lajos returned to Buda. Pope VI. Clemens arranged a peace treaty between I. Lajos and Queen Johanna. - I. Lajos' brother, Prince Istvan married Bavarian Princess Margit. Prince Istvan was named Governor of Szlavonia, Horvatorszag and Dalmatia.


III. Casimir Polish King asked I. Lajos for military help against the attacking Lithuanians. Due to the sickness of Casimir, I. Lajos led the combined Polish-Hungarian army. He defeated the Lithuanians in Halich and Lodomeria. Kestutis (Kiejstut) Lithuanian King was forced to sign a peace treaty with Poland. I. Lajos returned to Buda.


Pope VI. Clemens arranged a peace treaty between I. Lajos and Queen Johanna of Naples. I. Lajos agreed to remove his Hungarian army from Naples. - I. Lajos signed an alliance with Genova against Venice. - I. Lajos and III. Casimir Polish King agreed that Halich and Lodomeria are part of Poland.


I. Lajos' 2nd marriage was to Erzsebet, daughter of Istvan Kotromanic Bosnian Baron.


Turkish Ottoman Sultan I. Murad captured Gallipoli as a foothold to Europe. - I. Lajos led his 3rd campaign against the Lithuanians harrassing Halich. He restored order in Halich. From there I. Lajos led his army against the Mongols. They signed a peace agreement and the Mongols stopped their border incursions. - The army of I. Lajos recaptured Hum from the Serbians. - Prince Istvan Horvat, Szlavonian and Dalmatian governor died.


Stephan Dusan Serbian King died. I. Lajos sent Baron Miklos Banffy to Serbia. Banffy recaptured the Klissa Fortress from the Serbs.


I. Lajos organized a military campaign against the Doge of Venice. IV. Carl German-Roman Emperor sent an army to assist I. Lajos. Lajos entered the Venetian territory at Treviso. The neighboring Prince Francesco Carrara of Padova signed an alliance with I. Lajos.


Pope VI. Ince led unsuccessful peace talks between I. Lajos and Venice. Lajos refused to surrender his right to Dalmatia. Janos Csuz, Governor of Horvatorszag attacked the Venetian held areas in Dalmatia. - I. Lajos sent an army led by Miklos Lackfi to help Pope VI. Ince agains rebelling Italian barons Manfredi and Ordelaffi. Spalato and Trau cities rejected the Venetian rule and joined the Kingdom of Hungary. Janos Csuz captured Zara and Sebenico.


In Dalmatia Nona, Brazza and Lessina surrendered to I. Lajos. The Venetians signed a peace treaty and surrendered all of Dalmatia and Ragusa to Hungary. They also agreed to allow trade routes for the Dalmatian cities.


I. Lajos' army defeated IV. Stephan Uros Serbian child king and his guardian Marnavic Vukasin in the Krusevac Battle.


Pope VI. Ince, again, asked I. Lajos for military help. The King sent an army to defend Bologna for the Pope against Prince Bernabos Visconti of Milano. - Janos, grandson of I. Lajos died, leaving no male heir for the Anjou House. - Due to widespread broken trade agreements, usury and tax evasion, I. Lajos ordered the Jews to leave the country. Most of them settled in Austria and Czech Land.


A Hungarian mercenary army referred to as 'Magna Societas Ungarorum' was hired by the Pope.


Ottoman Sultan I. Murad captured Drinapoli.


I. Lajos sent an army led by Miklos Frankoi and Miklos Kont against the rebels in Pliva, Bosnia.


I. Lajos named Prince Karoly of Durazzo to be Governor of Horvatorszag and Szlavonia.


The Hungarian mercenary army led by Miklos Toldi was hired by I. Johanna Queen of Naples. - I. Lajos led an army against Upper Bulgaria and took its capital, Vidin. - Vajda Lajk of Havasu also surrendered to I. Lajos. - Vajda Bogdan gave up his Hungarian lands, moved to Moldova and declared himself Vajda of Moldova. - Bosnian barons rebelled against their leader Kotromanic Tvrtko. I. Lajos gave him an army to retake his princedom.


V. John Palaiologosz Byzantian Emperor met with I. Lajos in Buda. He asked for a Church-union with the Vatican and a Crusading army from the European leaders against the Ottoman Turks.


King I. Lajos, Polish King III. Casimir and Bavarian Prince II. Stephen Wittelsbach formed an alliance against the Habsburg Princes.


Pope V. Orban asked for an army from I. Lajos to defeat rebelling and marauding armies on the Pope's land. - Vajda Lajk of Havasu (Havasalfold) rebelled, I. Lajos' army took Szoreny back from Lajk.


Lajk Vajda of Havasu surrendered to I. Lajos, became a feoffee and received Szoreny back. - Jan Stracimir, Prince of Upper Bulgaria surrendered to I. Lajos, became a feoffee and received Vidin back. - I. Lajos, III. Casimir Polish King and the Bavarian Wittelsbach Princes renewed their alliance agaist the Habsburgs. They also agreed to trade privileges between their countries.


Erzsebeth, granddaughter of I. Lajos and Prince II. Philip of Taranto married. - I. Lajos established new trade laws and privileges to improve trade. - III. Casimir Polish King died without a heir. Based on the two countries' agreement in 1339, I. Lajos became King of Poland. I. Lajos was crowned King of Poland in Cracow on Nov. 17. I. Lajos designated Queen Erzsebet to govern Poland.


IV. Carl german-Roman Emperor attacked Brandenburg. Based on their alliance, I. Lajos sent an army to help the Bavarian Wittelsbach princes against IV. Carl. IV. Carl was forced sign a peace treaty with the Bavarians, and all armies returned home. - Sultan I. Murad destroyed the Macedonian's united army near the Marica River.


Queen Erzsebet, Governor of Poland started the retake of royal lands illegally taken by the barons. - Venetia (Venice) started a war with Prince Francesco Carrara of Padova. Due to their alliance, I. Lajos sent an army to defend Padova from the Venetians.


I. Lajos made an alliance with the Habsburgs against Venice.


I. Lajos had no male heir, so he wanted his successor to be on the female line. After an initial opposition, the Polish barons agreed to accept his request.


I. Lajos sent an army against the rebels in Havasu.


In Italy Genova and Padova signed a 50-year peace treaty. - Quieen Erzsebet's Hungarian escorts were attacked and killed in Cracow. The Queen escaped to Buda.


I. Lajos sent Laszlo Opulia to be Governor of Poland. - I. Lajos sent an army to Lithuania to retaliate their 1376 attack on Poland. He captured the Belz and Chelm fortresses and the Kestutis and Lubart Lithuanian princes surrendered. - Bosnian Ban Kotromanic Tvrtko was crowned King of Serbia.


The Venetian Doge and Queen Johanna of Naples agreed to an alliance against Hungary. The Venetian Navy attacked the Dalmatian coast and took 3 cities. I. Lajos built an alliance against Venice, which included: Genova, Padova, Verona and III. Albert and III. Lipot Habsburg Princes. The Hungarian army led by Janos Horvati, Ban of Macso, attacked Venice on land. An army from Padova joined the attack. - While VI. Orban was Pope, Queen Johanna of Naples selected VII. Clemens as 'Antipope'.


I. Lajos and IV. Vencel German and Czech King agreed to support VI. Orban as Pope. - The Genova Navy defeated the Venice Navy by Pola. The Genova and Padova Navy captured the Chioggia Fortress.


Pope VI. Orban stripped Queen I. Johanna from the Throne of Naples and named Prince Carlo Durazzo as new King of Naples. - Venice and Genova continued their war. Venice took the Chiogga Fortress, Genova's Navy captured Trieste, Arbe, Pole and Capo d'Istria. - I. Lajos gave Hungarian troops to Carlo Durazzo to claim his throne. - I. Lajos also gave troops to Genova against Prince Bernabos Visconti of Milano.


Pope VI. Orban crowned Prince Carlo Durazzo as King of Naples as III. Carlo. - I. Lajos, King of Hungary signed a peace treaty with Venice and the Venetians agreed that Dalmatia belongs to Hungary.


I. Lajos and the Polish Barons and Church leaders agreed that his daughter Princess Maria and her fiance Count Zsigmond Luxemburg of Brandenburg will be the heirs to the Hungarian and Polish Throne. Soon after King I. Lajos died. Princess Maria was crowned as new Queen. (1382-1395)


Queen Maria renewed the peace agreement with Doge Andrea Contarini of Venice. - Baron Janos Palisnai of Vrana rebelled against the Queen. The Queen sent an army to Horvatorszag and Vrana capitulated. - The Polish barons requested that their Queen must live in Poland.


Queen Maria's younger sister Hedvig was sent to Poland and she was crowned Queen of Poland in Cracow. Although the 2 queens were sisters, Hungary and Poland became separate kingdoms again.


Queen Maria and Count Zsigmond of Brandenburg married in Buda. - During the annual National Assembly every county is represented by 4 elected barons. - The Horvatorszag (Croatian) barons rebelled against the Queen and invited the King of Naples Carlo Durazzo to the Hungarian Throne. Carlo Durazzo entered Hungary at Zengg with his army, and advanced to Zagreb, and continued towards Buda. Count Zsigmond and his army went back to Germany, leaving the country defenseless. II. Carlo was crowned King of Hungary in Szekesfehervar as King II. Karoly on Dec 31. He ruled for 55 days only.


On Feb 7 an assasination attemt was made agains II. Karoly by Balazs Forgach. II. Karoly was seriously injured and died on Feb 24. Queen Maria retook the Throne of Hungary. - Hedvig, Queen of Poland married II. Ulaszlo Jagello Lihuanian King. Their marriage created the Polish-Lithuanian Union. - Janos Horvati, Ban of Macso rebelled against Queen Maria. - Count Zsigmond and his brother IV. Vencel German King organized an army to invade Hungary. Zsigmond and Queen Maria made a peace treaty in Gyor and the rights of Count Zsigmond were restored. - Queen Maria and Mother Queen Erzsebet led an army South to break the rebellious barons. The Horvati barons defeated the Queens' army at the Gara Fortress, and they captured the Queens. - While the Queens were kept captured, the National Assembly took over governing the country and Nador Miklos Szecsi was named leader. Count Zsigmond led his army to South Hungary to free his wife, Queen Maria. The captured queens were moved by Horvati to the Adriatic Sea Port, Novigrad.


Baron Janos Palisnai executed Erzsebet, the Mother Queen. Count Zsigmond reached Slovenia and laid a siege of Gomnec. Istvan Losonci, Ban of Szoreny, in alliance with Zsigmond attacked and defeated Janos Horvati in Temes County. - Count Zsigmond of Brandenburg was crowned King of Hungary in Szekesfehervar. (Ruled 1387-1437). The Horvati army pillaged the City of Pecs. Ban Istvan Losonci and Ban Miklos Garai defeated Horvati and the rebels at Cserog and chased the rebels out of Szerem, Valko and Pozsega counties. The King's general, Janos Frangepan with the help of the Venetian Navy captured Novigrad from Janos Palisnai and freed Queen Maria. King Zsigmond's army cleared out all rebels from Slovenia. - I. Stephan Tvrtko, King of Bosnia entered the war against King Zsigmond in alliance with the Horvati barons. King Zsigmond's army unsuccessfully laid a siege on the Vrana Fortress. - King Zsigmond declared a temporary tax increase to fund the war effort. - I. Stephan Tvrtko Bosnian King in alliance with Lazar Serbian King defeated the invading Turkish army led by Sultan I. Murad.


King Zsigmond defeated the invading Janos Horvati at the Bazakoz near the Szava River. - Zsigmond mortgaged his Brandenburg property for 565,000 golden Forints to cover the war costs..


King Zsigmond led a large army against Lazar Serbian King. King Lazar agreed to withdraw his support of the rebels in Hungary and accepted Zsigmond's right to be king. - The Turkish army invaded Serbia again and defeated the combined Serbian-Bosnian army at Rigomezo. King Lazar was killed. Serbia became the Vazallus State of the Sultan. The son of Lazar, Stephan Lazarevich was named to govern Serbia for the Turks. - As a precaution to the expected Turkish expansion, King Zsigmond captured the Serbian border fortresses Csesztin and Boracs. - Rebel baron Janos Palisnai succesfully defended his fortress, Vrana agains Janos Frangepan.


Stephan Tvrtko Bosnian King captured the Vrana and Klissa fortresses in Horvatorszag. He also threatened the Dalmatian cities and these cities with the exception of Zara, accepted the Bosnian King as ruler. - The Turkish pillaging forces entered Hungary the 1st time in History into Szerem, Krasso and Temes counties. - King Zsigmod led his army to NorthWest Hungary and recaptured the Hungarian fortresses from Moravian Count Prokop. They signed a peace agreement in Pozsony. - Ban Miklos Perenyi of Szoreny and Ispan Laszlo Saroi of Temes chased out the invading Turkish army. They caught up with the Turks at Vitovnica, Serbia and defeated them. The King himself led an army to Ostrovica chasing the Turks. - Bebek Detre, Ban of Slovenia unsuccessfully attacked the rebel Horvati barons at Knin.


I. Stephan Tvrtko King of Bosnia died. Stephan Dabisa was named new King of Bosnia. - King of Naples, Laszlo, son of II. Carlo of Naples, declared his claim to the Hungarian Throne. He also agreed to support the rebelling Horvati barons and requested support from the anti-Zsigmond barons. - King Zsigmond defeated another Turkish army in invading the Szeremseg.


King Zsigmond assembled a large army, which included Hungarian, Austrian, Polish and Silezian troops, against the Turks. They reached Izdril, but Sultan I. Bajezid avoided to fight any battles. After the King's return home, the Turks pillaged Krasso county again.


Ban Gyorgy Lackfi of Macso chased out the invading Turks from his territory. - Finally realizing the significance of Turkish threat, Bosnian King Stephan Dabisa agreed to a peace treaty with King Zsigmond. - The Turks defeated the Bulgarians and captured their capital fortress, Tirnovo. The Turks annexed the whole Bulgaria to their Ottoman Empire. - Bosnian baron Hervoja broke his alliance with Laszlo, King of Naples and allied himself with King Zsigmond. - Zsigmond sent an army to assist his cousin, Count Jodok of Moravia and Prince III. Albert of Austria in their struggle against Vencel German King and Moravian Count Prokop.


King Zsigmond and his brother, Vencel German King agreed to peace. - Country wide temporary tax increse was ordered to fund the new army against the Turks. - King Zsigmond captured the Dobor Fortress, the last stronghold of the rebel Horvati barons. Stephan Dabisa, King of Bosnia returned control of Horvatorszag (Croatia) and Dalmatia to Hungarian King Zsigmond. Dabisa also named Zsigmond as heir of the Bosnian Throne. - Miklos Garai, Ban of Horvatorszag defeated Laszlo, King of Naples and returned the control of the Dalmatian cities to Hungary. - Turkish Sultan I. Bajezid defeated Vajda Mirche of Havasu, passed through havasu and invaded Erdely at Barca.


King Zsigmond entered Moldavia with his army and defeated Vajda Stephan at Karacsonyko. Vajda Stephen accepted King Zsigmond as his superior. - Vajda Mirche and King Zsigmond formed an alliance against the Turks in Brasso. The Hungarian army led by Istvan Losonci and Ferenc Bebek entered Havasu, but lost a battle to the Turks. King Zsigmond also entered Havasu with his royal army and destroyed the Turks at the Kinnikapoly Fortress. Vajda Mirche received his Havasu Throne back. - Queen Maria died in a horse riding accident. - Stephan Dabisa, King of Bosnia died. King Zsigmond became King of Bosnia. Zsigmond named the widow Queen Ilona to govern Bosnia. - The Turks invaded Krasso and Temes counties. Ispan Miklos Csaky defeated the Turks near Csak in Temes County.


II. Manuel Palaiologos, Emperor of Byzantium sent his ambassador to Hungary to form an alliance against the Turks. - Zsigmond and his brother IV. Vencel German King named each other to be the heir of their Thrones in case they die withoult a son. - Ispan Miklos Marcali defeated the invading Turks at Maraz in Temes County. - King Zsigmond led an European Crusader cavalry against the Turks. They reached Orsova, Vidin and Orjahovo, and started the siege of Nikapoly in former Bulgaria. - Vajda Stibor of Transylvania entered Havasu and defeated rebel Vlad (The Impaler), the ally of the Turks. - Turkish Sultan I. Bajezid led a relief army to Nikapoly and defeated the Crusaders. King Zsigmond escaped to Constantinopol and agreed to an anti-Turkish alliance. The King returned home by Venetian ships to Dalmatia. - While the King was away, the Lackfi barons, Bishop Janos Szepesi and istvan Ordog attempted to overthrow King Zsigmond and replace him with Laszlo, King of Naples on the Hungarian Throne. - A Turkish pillaging army reached the Drava and Szava rivers.


While the King was dealing with the problems in South Hungary, Count Prokop of Moravia invaded from Northern Hungary and captured several fortresses. - The royalist Hungarian barons agreed to a meeting with the rebelling Lackfi barons and assassinated them. The remaining rebels were quickly defeated by the King's loyalists. - King Zsigmond and II. Ulaszlo Polish King agreed to an alliance in which gave Podolia to Hungary and Halich to Poland. They also agreed to a union against Moldovia and the Turks. - During the annual National Assembly in Temesvar: the most important new laws: 1. Draft was established for the Turk wars 2. High ranking foreign officials were to be replaced with Hungarians. 3. The Church is not tax exempt during the Turk wars.


The Bosnians elected Stephan Ostoja as new King. Ostoja and Bosnian Vajda Hervoja rejected King Zsigmond, named Laszlo King of Naples as their king. They also sought an alliance with the Turks. King Zsigmond attacked Bosnia and captured the Orbasz Fortress.


Hedvig, daughter of I. Lajos, Queen of Poland, died. - King Zsigmond headed North to retake the territories captured by Moravian Count Prokop in 1397. He recaptured the Nagyvar Fortress, then entered Moravia.


Ban Miklos Garai led an army against Bosnian Vajda Hervoja. - King Zsigmond and Moravian Count Jodok were fighting against Count Prokop in Moravia. - The barons of Hungary assembled an army and entered Serbia to fight the Turks. - The German counts overthrew German King IV. Vencel and named Prince III. Ruprecht of Pfalz as new German King. - King Zsigmond captured Ratibor and Ostrau in Moravia.


The Hungarian barons with the leadership of Archbishop Janos Kanizsai and Nador Detre Bebek captured King Zsigmond when he returned from the Moravian war. The governing of the country was taken over by a National Council. - The Counts of Moravia captured part of NorthWestern Hungary. - A group of barons offered the Hungarian Throne to II. Ulaszlo Polish King, but he refused it. - Another group of barons nominated Austrian Prince William for the Hungarian Throne. - Due to the pressure from the King's loyalist barons, the Council decided to free Zsigmond and restore him on the throne. Zsigmond agreed to pardon his enemies and agreed to recapture the Hungarian territories held by foreigners. - Turkish troops led by Bey Evrenos pillaged Transylvania. The Bey's returning army was destroyed by Vajda Mirche and the Hungarians in Havasu. - Ivan Nelipic Zhupan of Cetina captured the Klissza Fortress in Horvatorszag (Croatia) for Laszlo, King of Naples.


Dalmatian cities Trau and Sebenico joined Laszlo, King of Naples and Bosnian Vajda Hervoja. - Zsigmond captured his longtime enemy Count Prokop of Moravia. - Emir Timur, a Mongolian Muslim leader attacked Turkey from the East. Timur defeated and captured Sultan I. Bajezid at the Ankara Battle. This caused a civil war between the Sultan's sons, which paused the Turkish activity in Europe for 10 years. - Laszlo, King of Naples sent his Navy to the Hungarian Adriatic port city of Zara. Later he captured the city of Vrana and Spalato. - King Zsigmond, Austrian Prince IV. Albert and the Hungarian barons agreed that if Zsigmond dies without an heir, Albert will be crowned King of Hungary.


King Zsigmond was fighting in Moravia against the Counts. - Laszlo's Naples' generals, Vajda Hervoja and Imre Bebek defeated Ban Pal Besenyo of Horvatorszag-Szlavonia at Bihacs. - Pope IX. Bonifac gave his support for the Hungarian Throne to Laszlo, King of Naples. Zsigmond stopped the Papal payments. - Laszlo was crowned King of Hungary in Zara as Laszlo Napoli. - King Zsigmond's loyalist restored the King's power in most of the country, except for the SouthWestern area, which remained under Laszlo's control. Zsigmond confiscated the Laszlo-supporting barons' properties. King Laszlo returned to Naples for safety. - Stephan Ostoja, King of Bosnia accepted Zsigmond's superiority.


Serbian Despot, Stephan Lazarevich cut his ties to Turkey and swore his alleence to King Zsigmond. - Bosnian Vajda Hervoja overthrew Stephan Ostoja, King of Bosnia and named II. Stephan Tvrtko as new King of Bosnia. - Ban Janos Maroti of Macso led an army to Bosnia to restore Stephan Ostoja to the throne. - Zsigmond's other army was fighting in Moravia, in alliance with the Austrian princes against Count Jodok. - Later Prince IV Albert of Austria died.


King Zsigmond meet with the representatives of cities and they established new laws, including: Measurements were standardized, Foreign merchants were regulated and limited, City court rules were created, Free moving rights were given, Taxation was equalized, typically 1/30 royal tax, Native merchants were protected against foreign merchants, Export/Import royal tariff was 1/30, Money making and exchange was regulated. - King Zsigmond's army marched against Bosnian Vajda Hervoja and captured the Bihacs, Ostrozac and Szokol Fortresses. - Moravian Prince Prokop, enemy of Zsigmond died. - King Zsigmond married Borbala, daughter of Count Cillei Hermann.


Zsigmond named his Father-in-Law as Ban of Horvatorszag-Szlavonia. - Austrian Prince William invaded Hungary and captured territories in Sopron and Vas counties. Zsigmond sent an army against Prince William. Prince William died in battle


Zsigmond led an army against Bosnian Vajda Hervoja. The King advanced to Bobovac, but stopped the campaign and returned home due to his sickness.


Zsigmond led a new army into Bosnia and captured the Bosnian leaders in Dobor. Zsigmond executed 120 rebel leaders. - Zsigmond renewed his alliance with Serbian Despot Stephan Lazarevich. - King Zsigmond returned to Bosnia and advanced to Maglaj. II. Stephan Tvrtko Bosnian King surrendered to Zsigmond. - Zsigmond established a group of special loyal knights under the name of Dragon Order [Sarkanyrend].


The Dalmatian cities and Bosnian Vajda Hervoja surrendered to King Zsigmond. Zsigmond gave the prince rank to Hervoja. - Serban Despot Stephan Lazarevich was attacked by his brother, Vuk with Turkish help. Zsigmond sent an army to Serbia to help Stephan Lazarevich. - King Laszlo of Naples sold his remaining 4 Dalmatian cities (Zara Vrana, Novigrad and Pago) to Venice. Four additional Dalmatian cities joined Venice. - Bosnian Vajda Sandalj Hranic and his army overthrew King II. Stephan Tvrtko and again, named Stephan Ostoja as King of Bosnia. - The Teutonic Knights hired a Hungarian Mercenary army for 370,000 gold pieces against Poland. - Zsigmond awarded the Hunyad territory to Vajk who's son Janos Hunyadi became one of the most famous military leaders in 15th century history.


Venice laid siege on Sebenico and Trau in Dalmatia. - Zsigmond held peace talks between II. Ulaszlo Polish King and Vitold Lithuanian King against the Teutonic Knights. The talks were unsuccessful. In the battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) the combined Polish-Lithuanian army defeated the Teutonic Knights. - German King Ruprecht died. A group of German Elector Princes elected Zsigmond as King of Germany, another group of Elector Princes elected Count Jodok of Moravia as King of Germany. - In the meantime Zsigmond was leading his last military campaign into Bosnia. Her advanced into the Drina Valley. Ostoja, King of Bosnia and Vajda Sandalj Hranic surrendered and accepted Zsigmond as King of Bosnia. - Vajda Simon Rozgonyi of Erdely and Prince Todor of Podolia laid siege to the Szandece Fortress.


Count Jodok, Zsigmond's opponent for the German Throne died, leaving Zsigmond the only nominee. The German Elector Princes crowned Zsigmond as King of Germany in Frankfurt. He held the title until 1439. - The Teutonic Knights signed a peace treaty with Poland and Lithuania. Hungary also signed the peace treaty. - Zsigmond sent an army with the leadership of Ispan Pipo Ozorai and Count Frigyes Cillei to retake the Dalmatian cities captured by Venice. The Hungarians defeated the Venetians at Friaul.


Zsigmond and II. Ulaszlo agreed to keep Halich, Podolia and Moldova in Polish hands, however the Vajda of Moldova must supply an army, if needed against the Turks. - Miklos Marcali lost a battle against Venice at Motta. Venice also captured Sebenico after a 2-year siege. - Zsigmond mortgaged some Northeastern territories to II. Ulaszlo Polish King to fund a larger army against Venice.


Zsigmond was unable to break the Venetian defenses. They agreed to a 5-year peace. - In Bosnia Vajda Hervoja turned against Vajda Sandalj Hranic and allied himself with the Turks. - After the civil war in Turkey, I. Mehmed, son of Sultan I. Bajezid, became victorius over his brother and restored the unity of the Turkish Empire.


Traitor Bosnian Vajda Hervoja invaded Slovenia with a Turkish army. - Ispan Pipo Ozorai lead an army into Bosnia. - Zsigmond went to Germany to perform his duties as German King.


The Synod of Constanz executed John Huss, leader of the Hussita Movement. - Hervoja and the Turkish army defeated the Hungarian army at Doboj. As a result Bosnian King Otoja and Vajda Sandalj Hranic severed their alliance with Zsigmond. - Zsigmond while neglecting the defense of South Hungary, traveled in Western Europe. He visited I. Ferdinand, King of Aragonia.


Zsigmond visited French King VI. Charles in Paris. He negotiated a peace treaty between England and France (The 100-year War). Zsigmond also visited V. Henrik English King. - In Bosnia Vajda Hervoja died.


Zsigmond was using his infuence to prevent the split in the Vatican. Oddo Colonna was named as new Pope V. Marton.


Vajda Mircse of Havasu, ally of Zsigmond died. - After the 1413 peace treaty expired, Venice started a war against Zsigmond's allies in Northern Italy. - Bosnian King Ostoja died, his son Stephan Ostojic became the new Bosnian King. - The Turkish army was still pillaging in Szlavonia.


After 6 years away, Zsigmond returned to Hungary. - IV. Vencel Czech King died, and Zsigmond inherited the Czech Throne. - The King sent the Ban of Szlavonia, Denes Marcali to Friaul against the Venice. - Zsigmond led an army against the Turks in former Bulgaria. He reattached Szoreny to Hungary. - Zsigmond went to the Czech Land to claim his throne there.


King Zsigmond negotiated a peace treaty between II. Ulaszlo Polish King and the Teutonic Knights. - Pope V. Marton called for a Crusade against the Hussita Movement. - Zsigmond led the Crusaders (Moravians, Hungarians and Silezians) to Prague. He laid a siege to Prague. The Hussitas defeated him at the Vitkov Mountain, but he captured Prague. Zsigmond was crowned Czech King in Prague. Zsigmond army was defeated by Hussitas at Vysehrad. - Venice captured Trau and Spalato again. - The Turks invaded Hunyad County and defeated Transylvanian Vajda, Miklos Csaky at Vaskapu.


Sultan I. Mehmed died and succeded by his son, II. Murad. - In Bosnia II. Stephan Tvrtko became the King again. - Prince V. Albert of Austria married Erzsebet, daughter of Zsigmond. V. Albert agrred to provide an army and funds for another military campaign against the Hussitas. - The Turks pillaged the Barcasag and Brasso. Again, instead of protecting South Hungary, Zsigmond attacked the Hussitas.


The Hussitas led by Zizka defeated Zsigmond at Kuttenberg and at Nemetbrod. Zsigmond held a German National Council in Nurenberg to organize another war against the Hussitas.


Zsigmond agreed to an alliance with II. Ulaszlo Polish and Vitold Lithuanian Kings against the Hussitas in Kesmark. - Pipo Ozorai, Ispan of Temes defeated Turkish ally Vlach Vajda II. Radu Prasnaglava and chased him out of Havasu. Ozori named II. Dan as Vajda of Havasu. - Ozorai defeated a Turkish army by the Lower Danube. - Zsigmond named his son-in-law V. Albert to be the heir to the Czech and Moravian Thrones.


Zsigmond sent Archbishop Gyorgy Paloczi with an army against the Hussitas. - Zsigmond met with Byzantian Emperor VIII. John Palaiologos and with VII Erik of Denmark and XIII Erik of Sweden and Norway in Buda. - Ispan Pipo Ozorai entered the Szorenyseg to chase out the Turks. - The Turks defeated Vajda II. Dan in Havasu and put back Turkish ally II. Radu Prasnaglava on the throne.


Zsigmond and II. Stephan Tvrtko Serbian King agreed to an alliance. - Zsigmond led a 2-month long campaign against the Hussites. - Vajda Miklos Csaky of Erdely and Ispan Pipo Ozorai led their armies to restore II. Dan to the Throne of Havasu. They defeated the Turkish army at Vidin by the Danube.


Zsigmond and Serbian Despot Stephan Lazarevich agreed to an alliance. - The Hussites led by Holy Prokop defeated the German army at Ustinad Labem (Aussig). - Ispan Pipo Ozorai restored II. Dan to the Havasu Throne. - Miklos Perenyi led a Hungarian army against the Hussites. - Ispan Ozorai died. - Finally King Zsigmond went to South Hungary to organize its defense.


Zsigmond released new laws, including: Draft laws, Reimbursements damage caused by the military, Control prices of supply and food for the military, Regulated coin minting and counterfeiting penalties, Prohibited the export of gold and silver. - Zsigmond entered Havasu and strengthened Vajda II. Dan on the Throne. - Serbian Despot Stephan Lazarevich died, his successor was George Brankovich. Per the 1426 treaty Nandorfehervar and Macso was given back to Zsigmond.


The Hussites led by Holy Prokop and Prokoupek attacked Hungary in Nyitra County and advanced to Pozsony. - Zsigmond laid a siege og Galamboc at the Lower Danube. - Sultan II. Murad sent an army to Galamboc and successfully relieved the siege.


Zsigmond and Holy Prokop of the Hussitas unsuccessfully discussed the peace treaty in Pozsony. - Zsigmond hired the Teutonic Knights to defend the fortresses in the Szorenyseg at the Southern border. - King Zsigmond led the German National Council to organize another campaign against the Hussites.


The Prokoupek led Hussites defeated the Hungarians led by Janos Maroti at Nagyszombat. - King Vitold of Lithuania died.


The Hussites defeated the German army at Domazlice (Taus). - Holy Prokop and Jan Czapek led the Hussites into the Vag River valley in Hungary. The Hungarians defeated the Hussites near Galgoc and at Illava. - Zsigmond was crowned in Milano as King of Milano.


The Hungarian barons raised the taxes to cover the war expenses. - The Hussites captured Nagyszombat. - The Turks signed an alliance with I. Alexandoer Aldea Vlach Vajda of Havasu, invaded South Erdely (Transylvania) and laid a siege to Szeben and Brasso. - The Hussites Captured the Lednice Fortress and pillaged Privigye.


Zsigmond was crowned Emperor by Pope IV Jean in Rome. - The Hussites pillaged the Vag Valley, the Szepesseg and Kormocbanya. - Zsigmond signed a 5-year peace agreement with Venice. - The Turks won a decisive victory over the Teutonic Knights defending the Szorenyseg.


The Catholic Church's army destroyed the Taborita (Hussite ally) army by Lipany. - The Hussites in Hungary pillaged Lipto, Nyitra and Pozsony counties. The Hungarians took back Tapolcsany, Szakolca and Nagyszombat from the Hussites.


Matyus Talloci, Captain of Nandorfehervar (Belgrad) led his army to Bosnia to help King II. Stephan Tvrtko. Hungarian defenders were placed in the Jajca, Vranduk and Bocsac fortresses.


The Church throughout in Hungary fought the spread of Hussitism. Many Hussites sought refuge in Moldova. - King Zsigmond moved to Prague. He left governing the country in the hands of the King's Council.


Janos Kardos started a peasant revolt in Erdely in the Saxon Land and Feher County. The revolt spread to all of Erdely and to the counties East of the Tisza River. The peasant army defeated the nobles army led by Vajda Laszlo Csaky at Des in Szolnok County. The nobles and the peasants made a peace agreement at Babolna. - The Hungarian army defeated the Turks in a relief effort to end the siege of Szendro, capital of Serbian Despot George Brankovich. - In Erdely the Hungarian nobles, the Saxons and the Szekelys formed an alliance against the rebelling peasants. The peasants defeated the nobles at Apatin in Doboka County. The nobles and the peasants signed a peace agreement in Apatin. - Zsigmond, Emperor of Germany, King of Hungary died. - The nobles of Erdely defeated the rebelling peasants at Kolozsvar and executed their leaders. - The leading barons of the country elected Prince V. Albert Habsburg as new King of Hungary. He was the son-in-law of Zsigmond. He ruled 1437-39.


V. Albert was crowned king on Jan 1. Albert was also crowned King of Germany in Frankfurt on March 18 and crowned as Czech King on May 6. - The Turks pillaged Erdely at Szaszsebes, Segesvar, Meggyes and Brasso. - III. Ulaszlo Polish King also declared his claim to the Czech Throne. He led his army against V. Albert into the Szepesseg.


V. Albert and III. Ulaszlo agreed to an armistice. - V. Albert named Janos Hunyadi as Ban of Szoreny. - The citizens of Buda rebelled against the German nobles' and merchants' increased power over the Hungarians. The laws were revised to assure equal rights. - V. Albert declared new laws, some to restore power to the Hungarians after the Germanization under Zsigmond: Old Hungarian customs were reinstated, The selection of the Nador must be approved by the nobles, The king must hire mercenaries to protect the border, No foreigners in high office, Taxes reduced to the I. Lajos level, The King cannot award land to foreigners. - During the National Assembly the nobles accepted V. Albert as King. - Sultan II. Murad laid siege to the Szendro Fortress defended by Serbs and Hungarians. The King led an army South to Szerem, but the Sultan already captured Szendro. With this all of Serbia was in Turkish hands. - V. Albert and the nobles agreed to assemble a large mercenary army for a military campaign against the Turks in 1440. - King V. Albert became sick and died.


The Hungarian National Council elected III. Ulaszlo Polish King to the Hungarian Throne. - V. Albert's widow, Queen Erzsebet gave birth to a son, the future V. Laszlo. - III. Ulaszlo and Queen Erzsebet married. A Polish-Hungarian Union was created, which only lasted 4 years. III. Ulaszlo King of Poland was named I. Ulaszlo King of Hungary. He ruled 1440-1444. - Sultan II. Murad laid an unsuccessful siege to Nandorfehervar for several months. The fortress was defended by Captain Janos Talloci. - Cardinal Denes Szecsi crowned baby V. Laszlo as King. A drift was started between the supporters of King Ulaszlo and the followers of Queen Erzsebet. - Ulaszlo removed the Queen's loyalists from power. A smaller NorthWestern and SouthWestern areas joined the Queen's side. Queen Erzsebet formed an alliance with III. Frederick German King in Wiener-Neustadt. A civil war broke out.


I. Ulaszlo's loyalists Ban Miklos Ujlaki of Macso and Ban Janos Hunyadi of Szoreny defeated the Queen Erzsebet's loyalists at Bataszek in Tolna County. - I. Ulaszlo laid an unsuccessful siege of the Esztergom Fortress defended by Queen's Archbishop, Denes Szecsi. - The Queen's loyalist Janos Vitovec defeated Ulaszlo's troops at Szamobor, near Zagreb. - I. Ulaszlo captured the Queen's fortresses in Zala, Vas and Veszprem counties. The Queen's barons Frigyes Cillei and Ulrik Cillei surrendered to Ulaszlo. - Ulaszlo's generals Imre Bebek and Jan Czapek unsuccessfully attacked the Kassa Fortress defended by the Queen's Captain Janos Giskra. - Janos Hunyadi, who was promoted to Vajda of Erdely defeated a Turkish army led by Bey [Turkish Governor] Ishak in Serbia.


I. Ulaszlo laid an unsuccessful siege on Queen Erzsebet's Pozsony Fortress. - A Turkish army led by Bey Mezid invaded Erdely. Vajda Janos Hunyadi lost the 1st battle against the Turks at Szentimre, but defeated them at Gyulafehervar 4 days later. - The Turks offered peace in exchange for the Nandorfehervar Fortress and yearly tax payments. Ulaszlo refused to accept it. - Janos Hunyadi defeated the invading Turkish amy led by Bey Sehabeddin of Rumelia at the Ialomita River in Havasu. Janos Hunyadi led a punishing campaign against the Turks and destroyed their army at Vidin. - I. Ulaszlo and Queen Erzsebet agreed to a peace treaty in Gyor: both sides kept their properties, the Queen's followers were not punished, Ulaszlo agreed to marry Princess Anna, daughter of the Queen, and the Queen's son, V. Laszlo will be the successor of Ulaszlo on the Throne. - Soon after the agreement Queen Erzsebet died.


I. Ulaszlo organized a large army paid for by new taxes, for a punishing Crusade against the Turks. The leader of the Hungarian army was Vajda Janos Hunyadi, who was also referred to as the 'Torokvero' (Turk Beater) due to his exceptional military skills and victories over the Turks. Hunyadi and his army entered the Turkish held old Serbian territory in October. After several victories they captured Pirot and Sofia in November. Hunyadi's army defeated Sultan II. Murad's army at Zlatica. While pulling back towards Hungary for the Winter, Hunyadi defeated Bey Kasim at Melstica in December.


Janos Hunyadi's army defeated Bey Turahan's Turks at the Kunovica Pass in January. Weeks later Hunyadi returned to Nandorfehervar, ending the campaign. - Pope IV. Jeno called for a new Crusade to clear out all Turks from Europe. - Serbian Despot George Brankovich attempted to organize a peace conference between I. Ulaszlo and Sultan II. Murad. - Stephan Tamas, King of Bosnia hired Janos Hunyadi for protection from the Turks. - Ulaszlo and the Sultan agreed to a peace in Varad. Based on the peace agreement the Turks returned 24 fortresses in Serbia to George Brankovich. - The Pope declared the peace agreement invalid and requested that I. Ulaszlo send the Crusading army against the Turks. Ulaszlo without any of the promised help by other European countries and the Venetian Navy entered the old Bulgarian territory. Ulaszlo defeated the Turks and captured Vidin and Nikapoly, however he lost at Varna to the Sultan's main army. King Ulaszlo died in the battle. Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini, the Pope's representative and Bishop Simon Rozgonyi also died in battle. The remaining army was led home by Janos Hunyadi. On their way through Havasu they were attacked by Vlach Vajda named Vlad.


The National Council declared child V. Laszlo as new King. They requested German King III. Frederick to return child King V. Laszlo and his Saint Crown of Hungary, which were left to Frederick by late Queen Erzsebet for safe keeping during the civil war. The Council declared that the whole nation shall revolt and arm themselves against the Turks if the Sultan invades again. The governing of Hungary was kept by the National Council until the child King matures. - III. Frederick German King exploited the lack of central power in Hungary and captured several border fortresses, including Koszeg and Szarvko. - Janus Hunyadi laid a siege of Turkish held Kisnikapoly. The Navy of Burgundy provided assistance, but they were unsuccessful. - Ulrik Cillei and Jan Vitovec captured part of Szlavonia and killed Matyus Talloci Szlavonian-Horvat Ban.


The Council sent Janos Hunyadi against the Cillei counts into Szlavonia. - Due to the fact that the child King V. Laszlo was still held by the German King, the National Council named Janos Hunyadi as Governor of Hungary in June. - Janos Hunyadi led an army against the German King and pillaged the Vienna area.


The Austrians pillaged Western Hungary. Hunyadi agreed to a peace with III, Frederick German King and VI. Albert Austrian Prince. Gyor Fortress was returned to Hungary, the Germans kept the other territories. - Hunyadi led an army into Havasu and put ally Vajda Vladislav on the throne of Havasu.


Governor Hunyadi and the Council sent an army against the Cillei Counts in Szlavonia and forced the Cillei's to sign a peace agreement. Hunyadi led an army against the Turks into Serbia. He was defeated at the 2nd Battle of Rigomezo. While returning home, Hunyadi was captured by former ally Serbian Despot George Brankovich. Hunyadi had to give territories to Brankovich in exchande for letting him go.


An army was sent to retake Kormocbanya from the Czechs led by Jan Giskra. They were unsuccessful. Another army was sent against Giskra, but he defended the Somodi Fortress. Finally Hunyadi led an army against Giskra and recaptured Kormocbanya and Szepsi. Hunyadi and Giskra agreed to a truce.


Governor Hunyadi led an army against Serbian Despot George Brankovich in Szlavonia. Brankovich agreed to pay taxes. - Barons Ulrik Cillei and Pongrac Szentmiklosi fought each other in Western Hungary. - Hunyadi agreed to a peace with Ulrik Cillei, who returned Pozsony and Szakolca to Hunyadi. - Hunyadi and III. Frederick signed a peace treaty, in which the German King kept V. Laszlo until he is 18, and gave back Deveny to Hungary.


Turkish Sultan II. Murad died. His son II. Mehmed sucseeded him on the throne. - War broke out between Governor Hunyadi and Czech Jon Giskra again. While Griska successfully defended Losonc, he lost other fortresses and some of his loyalists changed sides and joined Hunyadi.


Governor Hunyadi recaptured fortresses Derencseny, Rozsnyo and Szepsi from Jan Giskra. Hunyadi and Giskra agreed to a truce. - Janos Hunyadi built an alliance with the Ausztrian, Czech and Moravian nobles and with the Cillei Counts against III. Frederick German King to force the King to release V. Laszlo. III. Frederick released V. Laszlo, but kept the Saint Crown of Hungary.


V. Laszlo was accepted as King of Hungary. Janos Hunyadi renounced his governorship. Hunyadi was named as 'Captain-General' (Supreme Commander). - King V. Laszlo sent Hunyadi's son, Laszlo Hunyadi to chase out the Czechs still occupying Northern Hungary. - Turkish Sultan II. Mehmed captured Constantinopol after decades of siege. With this loss the Byzantian Empire was finished. - The Czech nobles crowned V. Laszlo as Czech King in Prague.


Sultan II. Mehmed's army invaded Serbia and surrounded Serbian Despot George Brankovich in Szendro. Hunyadi led his army into Serbia help the former traitor Brankovich, and destroyed the Sultan's army at Krusevac.


After Hunyadi left Serbia, Sultan II. Mehmed sent another army defeated the Serbs at Novo Brdo and captured South Serbia.


II. Mehmed organized a large army to Invade Hungary. The Turks laid a siege of Nandorfehervar. The heroic defenders were led by Mihaly Szilagyi. Janos Hunyadi lead a Crusader relief army to Nandorfehervar and destroyed the Sultan's army. The victory was so significant that Pope III. Calixtus ordered ringing the church bells every day at noon. This custom is still performed today throughout most of Europe, although almost nobody remembers the original reason. - Janos Hunyadi died in the black death epidemic following the battle. V. Laszlo named Ulrik Cillei to replace Janos Hunyadi as Captain-General. V. Laszlo ordered Hunyadi's son Laszlo to hand over the Hunyadi properties to Ulrik Cillei. Laszlo Hunyadi and his followers captured and executed Ulrik Cillei in Nandorfehervar. V. Laszlo agreed not to punish Ulrik Cillei's killers and named Laszlo Hunyadi as Captain-General.


In March V. Laszlo captured the Hunyadi brothers and their followers. Laszlo Hunyadi was beheaded by the King for high treason. Civil war broke out between the King and the Hunyadi followers. The Hunyadi followers were led by the widow of Janos Hunyadi, Erzsebet Szilagyi and her brother, defender of Nandorfehervar in 1456, Mihaly Szilagyi. King V. Laszlo left Hungary for safety, 1st to Vienna, and to Prague. He took Matyas Hunyadi, the younger brother of the executed Laszlo Hunyadi with him as a hostage. - V. Laszlo died in Prague due to black death in November.


During the National Council in January the Szilagy family nominated Matyas Hunyadi as new King. To make a point, Mihaly Szilagyi brought 15,000 soldiers with him. The nobles agreed to elect Matyas as new king as long as Laszlo Hunyadi's killers were given immunity. I. Matyas was declared King of Hungary on Jan 24. He ruled 1458-1490 one of the greatest kings of Hungary. - After V. Laszlo's death, Matyas Hunyadi was held by George Podjebrad Czech Governor. He released Matyas after he was named King. Podjebrad was crowned Czech King by the Czech nobles. Podjebrad, who was a Hussite, was accepted as King the the Pope in Rome. - Matyas was crowned King of Hungary in Buda. - Jan Giskra accepted I. Matyas as King. - Pope III. Calixtus requested that I. Matyas must send an army to chase out the Turks from Serbia. - The Turks advanced into most of Serbia, captured Galamboc. Matyas sent an army into Serbia against the Turks, with minor success. The Serbian territories saved from the Turks were annexed to Bosnia by Matyas. - Matyas sent another army against Czech Jan Giskra in Northern Hungary and retook 6 fortresses.


With the leadership of ex-Nador Laszlo Garai, 25 Northern barons rebelled and elected III. Frederick German King as King of Hungary. Ban Simon Nagy of Macso led an army against the rebels and their German allies. Nagy lost the 1st battle, then won the 2nd battle 5 days later. Rebel leader Laszlo Garai died in battle, and his widow, Alexandra Teschen surrendered to the King's army. - The Turks captured Szendro, the capital of Serbia.


I. Matyas and III. Frederick German King signed a truce. - The Turks captured General Mihaly Szilagyi and executed him in Constantinopol. - The Turks defeated the Peloponnesos Greeks and took Morea.


Jan Giskra and his Czech followers accepted III. Frederick as German and Hungarian King. - I. Matyas formed an alliance with Austrian VI. Albert against III. Frederick. Albert declared war on his brother, Frederick, but later they agreed to a peace. - Matyas married Katalin, daughter of Czech King George Podjebrad. - Giskra captured Kesmark in Szepes, however soon after the Hungarians recaptured all fortresses in Szepes County under the leadership of Imre Szapolyai.


I. Matyas and III. Frederick signed a peace agreement. Frederick returned the Saint Crown he held and also returned several Hungarian territories to Matyas. - Matyas signed a peace treaty with Jan Giskra, who accepted Matyas as King. - Sultan II. Mehmed defeated IV. Vlad Drakul, Vajda of Havasu. The Sultan named Radul as new Vajda of Havasu, now a Vassal of the Turkish Empire.


I. Matyas ordered the assembly of an army against the Turks. - Turkish Sultan II. Mehmed attacked and defeated Bosnia and executed the Bosnian King Stephan. - The new Hungarian army led by Vajda Janos Pongrac moved to the Southern border to face the Turks. Matyas himself went to Tolna County. The Hungarian army defeated the invading Turks in Szerem and Temes counties. - Matyas and Cristoforo Moro, Doge of Venice formed an alliance against the Turks. Venice attacked the Turks at Peloponnesos. Matyas laid a siege and captured the Turkish held Jajca in Bosnia. - The Crusader army promised by the Pope was never materialized.


Queen Katalin died during childbirth. - Sultan II. Mehmed laid a siege on Jajca in Bosnia. I. Matyas' army consisting of 17,000 cavalry and 13,000 infantry headed towards Jajca. The Sultan gave up the siege of Jajca and pulled back. Matyas captured the Srebenica Fortress, but he was unsuccessfull at Zvornik.


I. Matyas refused a peace offering from the Turks. - I. Matyas started to organize a military campaign against the Turks in 1466. The new Pope II. Paul and the Venetians sent monetary aid to help fund the campaign.


Jan Svehla and other Czechs called the 'Czech Brothers' pillaged Nyitra County. Prince Viktorin, son of Czech King George Podjebrad agreed to crush the pillaging Czech Brothers. - Due to the news of the Hungarian army buildup, Sultan II. Mehmed decided to attack Albania instead.


I. Matyas captured the Kosztolany Fortress and executed Jan Svehla. The captured Czech Brothers with the leadership of Frantisek Hagot agreed to be mercenaries for Matyas. The mercenary army was called the 'Black Army' and consisted of 6-8000 soldiers. - Rebellion broke out in Zala County and in Erdely due to the increased war taxes. - Matyas broke both rebellions, a few nobles were executed. Matyas sent a small army against Vajda III. Stephan of Moldova because of his support of the Erdely rebellion. Matyas laid a siege of the Moldvabanya Fortress.


Vajda III. Stephan of Moldavia surrendered to I. Matyas. - Bey Skander, heroic defender of Albania against the Turks died. - Sultan II. Mehmed sent a peace envoy to Hungary. - Matyas sent an army against Czech Prince Viktorin Podjebrad because of the continuing incursions and pillaging by the Czechs in NorthWestern Hungary. Bishop Prothas and the Czech Catholic Church with their army and fortresses surrendered to Matyas. - The Pope called for a Crusade against Czech King George Podjebrad marking the beginning of the 10-year Czech Wars. - I. Matyas and III. Frederick of Germany chased out the Czechs from Austria. Matyas captured Trebitsch (Trebich) Fortress in Moravia. Matyas also took Brunn (Brno) and Olmutz (Olomuc). III. Frederik German Emperor gave his one-year income to Matyas for the Czech War expenses.


I. Matyas captured the Spielberg Fortress. - Matyas and George Podjebrad Czech King agreed to a truce. - The Czech Catholic Church crowned I. Matyas as Czech King. - Matyas caught Viktorin Podjebrad. - Matyas formed an alliance with Bavarian princes IX. Louiis, IV. Albert and Frederick against the Podjebrads. - The Turkish army invaded Krajna and Karinthia in SouthEastern Austria. - George Podjebrad defeated Matyas at Magyarbrod and entered the Vag Valley in Hungary.


Turkish Sultan II. Mehmed captured the Negropointe (Euboia) Island in the Adriatic Sea. - I. Matyas defeated George Podjebrad at Tobitschau (Tovacov). Peace talks between Matyas and Podjebrad failed. - The Turks pillaged in Horvatorszag and Szlavonia. - The Chronicle 'De Santo Ladislao' identified the ancient Huns and Hungarians the same people.


Pope II. Paul sent funds to I. Matyas to continue the Czech Wars. - George Podjebrad Czech King died. The Czech nobles elected Jagello Ulaszlo, son of IV. Kasimir Polish King as new Czech King. Pope II. Paul named I. Matyas as Czech King. The Czech nobles crowned Jagello Ulaszlo as Czech King in Prague. - The Turks invaded and pillaged Horvatorszag and Szlavonia again. - Archbishop Janos Vitez and Bishop Janus Pannonius organized a rebellion against I. Matyas and invited Polish King Kasimir to the Hungarian Throne. The majority of the Church and the Hungarian nobles remained loyal to Matyas. Prince Kasimir led his army into Northern Hungary at Saros to claim the throne. Several barons in the area joined Kasimir. The Nyitra Fortress surrendered to Kasimir. - Archbishop Janos Vitez surrendered to Matyas. - Matyas sent an army against Kasimir. Kasimir turned around and left Hungary without a fight.


New Pope IV. Sixtus confirmed I. Matyas' right to the Czech Throne. - Bishop Janus Pannonius died of tuberculosis. The support for Prince Kasimir for the Throne was diminished. - Matyas agreed to a truce with IV. Kasimir Polish King and with Ulaszlo Czech King. - Uzun Hassan, Akkojunlu Turkmenian ruler started a war with Sultan II. Mehmed in Eastern Anatolia, so the Turks left Hungary alone for 2 years. - The Pope organized (unsuccessful) peace talks between Matyas and III. Frederik and between Matyas and IV. Kasimir Polish and Ulaszlo Czech Kings.


I. Matyas captured several Austrian border towns. - Matyas' renewed peace talks with IV. Kasimir and Ulaszlo were unsuccessful. - Sultan II. Mehmed defeated Uzun Hassan Turkmenian King. - Vajda III. Stephan of Moldova overthrew Vajda Radul in Havasu and named Basarab as new Vajda. - The Hungarian army recaptured several fortresses in Zemplen County from Poland.


Turkish Bey Ali of Szendro pillaged the Temeskoz and Varad. - I. Matyas and IV. Kasimir Polish King finally signed a peace agreement and restored the original border between the 2 countries. - The Turks pillaged the area between the Drava and Szava rivers. - Matyas asked the Pope, the German, Czech and Polish Kings for help against the Turks. Instead of helping, the Czechs and Poles assembled an army in Silezia against Matyas. Matyas entered Silezia with 7000 mercenaries. IV. Kasimir Polish King entered Silezia with a 50,000 men army. Matyas settled with his main army in the Boroslo Fortress, while sent his cavalry led by famous Captain Pal Kinizsi to harrass the Polish army. Kasimir's large army, joined by the Czech army totaling about 75,000 men surrounded and laid a siege to Boroslo. Kinizsi's Hungarian cavalry cut off the supplies of the much larges armies, eventually forcing them to initiate peace talks. They signed a 3-year truce and the Czech and Polish armies left Silezia in Matyas' hands. - In December Turkish Pasha Suleiman invaded Moldovia. Vajda III. Stephan of Moldova asked for help from Erdely Vajda Balazs Magyar.


The Erdely and Moldovian Vajdas' united army defeated Pasha Suleiman's invading Turks at Vaslui in Moldovia. I. Matyas asked the Pope again for help against the Turks. - Several nobles unsuccessfully rebelled against Matyas in Silezia. - The Turks laid a siege to Caffa at the Black Sea. - I. Matyas refused a peace agreement submitted by Sultan II. Mehmed. - Matyas crossed the Szava River on his way South against the Turks. The Pope did not provide any promised help.


I. Matyas recaptured the Szabach Fortress at the River Szava from the Turks. - Sultan II. Mehmed sent his army to invade Moldova again. Matyas sent Chief Justice Istvan Bathori with an army to help the Moldovian Vajda. Before Bathori reached the battlefield, the Sultan defeated the army of Moldovian Vajda III Stephan at Valea Alba. Bathori's army defeated the Sultan's army and chased the Turks out of Moldovia. - Matyas received monetary help from Pope IV. Sixtus. - Matyas negotiated a peace agreement between warring Switzerland and Burgundy. - Captains Peter, Imre and Laszlo Doczi defeated and chased out invading Bey Ali from Temes County. - Chief Justice Istvan Bathori with an army entered Havasu from Moldova and chased away Turkish ally Vajda Basarab. He named IV. Vlad Tepes as new Vajda. - I. Matyas married Princess Beatrix Aragon of Naples. - The Turks pillaged South Erdely.


The Turks chased away Vajda IV. Vlad Tepes and restored Basarab as Vajda of Havasu. - While earlier III. Frederik German King promised the Czech Throne to I. Matyas, changed his mind and accepted the Polish Ulaszlo as Czech King. Matyas declared war on III. Frederik and assembled an army at Gyor. Matyas' army consisting of 10,000 infantry and 7000 cavalry men entered Eastern Austria. Ulaszo Czech King pulled his troops back from Austria without a fight. The Hungarian army led by Janos Zeleni captured 2 fortresses and laid a siege on 3 others. The Pope initiated peace talks were unsuccessful. Matyas' infantry captured several fortresses and laid a siege to Vienna. Matyas' cavalry reached Linz. Finally in December Matyas and Frederick signed a peace agreement, which included a large restitution paid to Matyas, Frederick agreed to withdraw from anti-Hungarian alliances and activities, support Matyas to the Czech Throne, Matyas agreed to withdraw from Austria. - Both III. Frederick of Germany and Pope IV. Sixtus declared their support for I. Matyas for the Czech Throne.


The Pope excommunicated Ulaszlo Czech King. - I. Matyas and Ulaszlo Czech King signed a peace treaty, in which they both accept the other as Czech Kings on their own territories, basically Ulaszlo kept the Czech lands and Matyas kept Moravia and Silezia. This is the end of the 10-year Czech Wars. - I. Matyas refused to get involved in King of Naples Ferdinand's war against Milano, Firenze and Venice.


Venice signed a peace treaty with the Turkish Sultan II. Mehmed. - I. Matyas signed a 10-year alliance with Switzerland. - Matyas signed a peace treaty with IV. Kasimir Polish King and agreed not to support the Teutonic Knights against Poland. - Matyas signed an alliance with Albert Achilles, Prince of Brandenburg. - Matyas agreed to an alliance with Archbishop Bernhard von Rohr of Salzburg against the Turks. - The Turks invaded and pillaged Zala and Vas counties. - In another Turkish attack led by Bey Hassan-oglu Isa entered Erdely through Havasu with 40,000 men. They pillaged Saxonia and destroyed Szaszvaros. Chief Justice Istvan Bathori and the refief cavalry led by Pal Kinizsi destroyed the Turkish army at the famous battle of Kenyermezo (between Szaszvaros and Alvinc). The Turkish losses were over 30,000, while the Hungarians' 8000. - The Turks defeated and completely took over Albania.


After several requests III. Frederick German King refused to pay the 100,00 gold he promised in the 1477 peace treaty. I. Matyas szent his army led by Istvan Szapolyai and Jakab Szekely into Styria against III. Frederick. They captured the Radkersburg Fortress. The 2 kings started peace talks. - Vajda III. Stephan of Moldovia led an army with Hungarian help in an unsuccessful attemp to overthrow the Turkish ally Vajda Basarab on the Havasu Throne. - I. Matyas entered into peace talks with Sultan II. Mehmed and allowed the Sultan's army led by Pasha Daud of Bosnia to pass through Hungary and attack III. Frederick's Austrian territories. The returning Turkish army broke the peace agreement and pillaged Horvatorszag. - Matyas organized a punishing campagn against the Turks. Matyas also requested the German nobles not to support III. Frederick Emperor against him. The German nobles agreed not to support their Emperor against Matyas while Matyas is at war with the Turks. - The Turks captured Otranto in Southern Italy. - Matyas invaded Bosnia with his army and destroyed any Turkish forces he met. Ispan Pal Kinizsi of Temes invaded Serbia, beat the Bey of Szendro in several battles and advanced until Krusevac. Kinizsi returned home with a number of Serbian and Vlach settlers to populate part of Southern Hungary depopulated by the Turks. [Allowing these and other settlers into Hungary seemed like a good idea at the time, however it led to a devastating Trianon 'Peace' Treaty 440 years later, which gave huge chunk of Hungarian lands to the descendants of these settlers.]


German Emperor III. Frederick invaded Hungary and advanced until the Gyor Fortress. Pope IV. Sixtus ordered both Frederick and I. Matyas to agree to peace and unite in a war against the Turks. The 2 kings agreed to a truce. - I. Matyas sent 300 cavalry and 400 infantry men to help his father-in-law, King Ferdinand of Naples agains the Turks invading South Italy. Ferdinand and the experienced Hungarians defeated the Turks in Otranto. - Turkish Sultan II. Mehmed died. His sons Bajezid and Djem fought for the throne. Bajezid won and became Sultan II. Bajezid. - Ispan Pal Kinizsi of Temes led a punishing war against Bey Ali of Szendro into former Serbia.


II. Frederick of Germany refused to stop harrassing Western Hungary, so I. Matyas declared war and laid a siege on the Hainburg Fortress in Lower Austria. Frederick asked for military help from Ulaszlo Czech King. Saxonian Prince Ernie and Prince Albert joined the alliance against I. Matyas. - Matyas sent a 500 men cavalry to help Prince Hercules Estei of Ferrara against Venice. - Matyas agreed to an alliance with Prince Johann of Sagan. - Ispan Pal Kinizsi destroyed an invading Turkish army at Becse in Torontal County. - Matyas captured the Hainburg Fortress. Karinthia signed a peace treaty with Matyas. The King's army recaptured the Koszeg Fortress, which was held by III. Frederick since 1445.


The Hungarian army laid a siege of the Bruck Fortress in Lower Austria. - Szlavonian Ban Matyas Gereb of Vingart defeated an invading Turkish army in Krajna and in Styria. - King I. Matyas and Sultan II. Bajezid signed a 5-year peace agreement.


The Hungarian army captured the Bruck Fortress. They laid a siege on the Kronenburg Fortress in Austria and captured it in December. - Sultan II. Bajezid attacked Moldovia and captured the Kilia and Akkerman fortresses. - The Turks pillaged Temes County. [So much for the 5-year peace.]


I. Matyas laid a siege on Vienna and captured it in 5 months. (The only army to capture Vienna for centuries.) - Repeated peace talks with III. Frederick were unsuccessful. Matyas laid a siege on Wiener-Neustadt. - The Turks captured 2 more fortresses in Moldovia.


The Hungarian army captured Stein City and Laa City in Austria.


I. Matyas captured Wiener-Neustadt and completely took over Lower Austria. His army consisted of 8000 infantry and 20,000 cavalry. - Matyas' son, Prince Janos Corvin married Princess Bianca Sforza of Milano. - Matyas' envoy, Demeter Jaksics returning from Constantinopol after talks with the Sultan was murdered by the Turks in Szendro. - I. Matyas and Saxonian Prince Albert signed a peace treaty.


The Chronica Hungarorum was 1st printed. It promoted the Ancient Hun and Hungarian relationship. - I. Matyas sent a 500 men army to help his father-in-law Ferdinand, King of Naples against Venice. - Matyas and III. Frederick agreed to a truce. - Matyas and Bavarian Princes Albert and George Wittelsbach fromed an alliance against III. Frederick. - Matyas and Sultan II. Bajezid extended their peace treaty by 2 yeras. - Johann, Prince of Sagan declared war on Matyas. Matyas attacked and captured the Glogau Fortress from Johann.


Johann, Prince of Sagan surrendered to I. Matyas. Prince White Conrad of Ols surrendered to Matyas. - Matyas and III. Frederick renewed the truce, however peace talks were unsuccessful.


King I. Matyas was poisoned by the Germans and died in Vienna. - Czech King Jagello Ulaszlo declared his claim to the Hungarian Throne, and so did Matyas' son Janos Corvin. The National Assembly was called to select and elect a new king. Civil war broke out between the 2 'applicants' and their followers. - Ulaszlo led a 15,000 man army from Prague to Hungary. - A Hungarian army suppoting Ulaszlo defeated Janos Corvin's army at Nagyszombat in Tolna County. - The widow Queen Beatrix force married Jagello Ulaszlo. Ulaszlo was crowned as II. Ulaszlo, King of Hungary. He ruled 1490-1516. - Janos Corvin renounced his claim to the throne. - The brother of II. Ulaszlo, Polish Prince Janus Albert entered Hungary with his army. He set up camp near Pest. - Habsburg Miksa Roman King attacked and captured Vienna from the Hungarians. Klosterneuburg also surrendered to Miksa. - A Turkish invading army was defeated by Pal Kinizsi at Varad. - Polish Prince Janus Albert captured the Eger Fortress and laid a siege to Kassa. - Matyas' Black Army mercenaries sided with II. Ulaszlo. - King Miksa entered Hungary and captured Szombathely, Veszprem and Szekesfehervar. Wiener-Neustadt also surrendered to Miksa. Miksa turned around and headed home. - II. Ulaszlo's army relieved the siege of Kassa by his brother Janus Albert.


II. Ulaszlo and Prince Janus Albert made a peace agreement. Janus Albert accepted Ulaszlo on the throne and pulled back his army from Hungary. In exchange he received Silezia. - Janos Corvin and his army recaptured several fortresses including Zagreb in Szlavonia from Habsburg King Miksa for the benefit of II. Ulaszlo. - Vajda Istvan Bathori and Captain-General Pal Kinizsi also recaptured Szekesfehervar, Veszprem and Szombethely from Miksa. The Black Army captured several fortresses in Austria for Ulaszlo. - The Turks in Bosnia captured Koszoruvar (Vinac) near Jajca. - Polish Prince Janus Albert invaded Hungary again and captured Sztropko in Zemplen and attacked Tokaj. Ulaszlo's army led by Istvan Szapolyai defeated Albert at Tokaj, and later at Eperjes. Albert gave up his claim to the Hungarian Throne and left the country. - II. Ulaszlo and Habsburg Miksa King signed a peace treaty. Ulaszlo gave back the captured Austrian territories.


The Turks attacked again and laid unsuccessful sieges on Nandorfehervar (Belgrad), Szabacs and Jajca. Pal Kinizsi's army relieved Nandorfehervar and Archbishop Peter Varadi's army relieved Szabacs. The Bey of Vidin laid a siege on the Szoreny Fortress. Pal Kinizsi's army defeated the Turks at Szoreny. - The Black Army mercenaries, now unpaid, pillaged the Szava River area. Pal Kinizsi's army defeated and scattered the remaining Black Army. --- For timeline comparison: Christopher Colombus 'discovered' America.


The Saxons of Erdely led by Chief Justice Gyorgy Csukas Hecht defeated an invading Turkish army at the Vorostorony Pass. - Turkish Pasha Jakub unsuccessfully attacked the Jajca Fortress in Bosnia. - German Emperor III. Frederick died. His son, I. Miksa was named new German-Roman King (and later Emperor) - Pasha Jakub gave up the siege of Jajca, and invaded South Austria. The returning Pahsa Jakub defeated the army of Horvat-Szlavon Ban Imre Derencsenyi at Ubdina in Dalmatia. - The Turks pillaged the Barcasag in Erdely. - Captain General Pal Kinizsi pillaged the Turkish territories near Szendro.


The Turks attacked Nandorfehervar again, but Pal Kinizsi's relief army defeated the Turks. The escaping Turks pillaged Szlavonia. - Pal Kinizsi led a successful punishing campaign with an army of 14,000 against the Turks occupying Serbia and Bulgaria. - Chief Justice Pal Kinizsi died after the campaign. - Prince Lorinc Ujlaki of the Szeremseg was suspected of collaborating with the Turks. II. Ulaszlo sent an army led by Erdely Vajda Bertalan Dragffy against Ujlaki. The Vajda defeated Ujlaki and captured most of the Szeremseg. - Based on remaining tax records the population of Hungary was estimated at 4 million.


The King's army continued their attack of Baron Ujlaki. They defeated Ujlaki in Somogy and Vas counties. Ujlaki surrendered and his properties were confiscated. - II. Ulaszlo and Sultan II Bajezid signed a peace treaty for 3 years. - Based on the serfs' property records the population of Transylvania was 425,000. From that 300,000 were Hungarian and Szekler, 68,000 were Saxon and 57,000 were Vlach (relocated from the Turkish held territories since 1480).


Prince Janos Corvin of Szlavonis-Horvatorszag started to organize a movement against II. Ulaszlo. He was seeking alliance with the German and Polish kings. - The citizens of Buda rebelled against the Jewish usurpers and despots.


The Polish army laid siege of Szucsava in Moldavia. Vajda Bertalan Dragffy of Erdely entered the battlefield with 12,000 men and forced a peace treaty between Vajda III. Stephan and the Poles.


The National Assembly declared the following major laws: All nobles were ordered to be present at the Assembly. The King's Court consisted of 20 elected positions: 2 pontiffs, 2 barons and 16 counts. Exporting gold, silver and animals were prohibited. All immigrants from Turkish ruled territories were accepted. [Most of these immingrants were settled concentrated in Southern Hungary and they were allowed to keep their original ethnicity. This caused serious ethnicity problems in Hungary later and finally led to the loss of two thirds of the Hungarian territory in 1919.] - II. Ulaszlo, Polish King Janus Albert and Moldovian Vajda III. Stephan agreed to an alliance against the Turks.


Horvat Ban Janos Corvin leading 4000 men defeated an invading Turkish army at Sebenico in Dalmatia. After giving chase to the Turks he unsuccessfully laid a siege on the Turkish held Bisztrica Fortress. - Hungary's international trade was est. 1.6 million Gold Forints.


Hungarian troops pillaged the Turkish territory near Szendro. - Ban Janos Corvin led his army, which included Venetians, against the Turks into Bosnia. He reached Mostar and defeated a Turkish army in the Neretva Valley. - Pope VI. Alexander annulled the forced marriage between II. Ulaszlo and Matyas' widow Queen Beatrix.


Ban Janos Corvin's army was defeated by the Turks at Blata by the Neretva River. - Horvat ViceBan Pavel Kozulic-Sterbac and Zarko Drazojevich led their army into Turkish territory to Bisztrica. - Ispan Jozsa Somi of Temes led a 14,000 men army against the Turks into Serbia. He cleared the Turks out of 600 Serbian villages and returned with several thousand Turkish prisoners of war. - Ban Janos Corvin defeated the attacking Bosnian Turks at the Bosnian border. Skender, Pasha of Bosnia laid a siege to the Jajca Fortress. Janos Corvin led a relief army to Jajca and defeated Pasha Skender. The losses were 4000 Turks and 1000 Hungarians. Janos Corvin, while chasing the Pasha, captured several smaller fortresses in Bosnia.


The Turks attacked Jajca again. The relief army led by Janos Tarczay defeated the Turks at Orbasz. - Turkish marauders broke into Szerem and Pozsega counties. - II. Ulaszlo married Anna Candalei French Princess, relative of French King XII. Louie. Anna was crowned Queen in Szekesfehervar. - Erdely Vajda Peter Szentgyorgyi, Ispan Jozsa Somi of Temes, Ban Gyorgy Kanizsa of Nandorfehervar and Ban Peter Tarnok of Szoreny attacked the Turks in former Bulgaria. They defeated the Turks at Kladovo, Vidin and Nikapoly. They met and united with the army of Ban Janos Corvin of Horvatorszag at Vrhbosna (Sarajevo). The Turks avoided any battles with the large Hungarian army, so after capturing several cities and fortresses, the Hungarians returned home.


II. Ulaszlo and Sultan II. Bajezid agreed to a 2-year peace. -


Janos Corvin, Ban of Croatia was defeated by an invading Turkish army at Knin. Soon after the battle Janos Corvin died.


The National Council declared that they will no longer accept a foreigner king if II. Ulaszlo died without a son heir. The Hungarian nobles were worried about I. Miksa German-Roman King's Hungarian Throne aspiration.


The National Council forced King II. Ulaszlo to declare war against I. Miksa German-Roman King. Istvan Hedervary led the Hungarian army into Eastern Austria, and I. Miksa's army captured the Sopron and Pozsony fortresses. - II. Ulaszlo had a son, who eventually became the future king II. Lajos. - Ulaszlo and Miksa signed a peace treaty and the original borders were restored. - Queen Anna died.


The Czech National Council named Lajos, II. Ulaszlo's son as future Czech King.


Count Janos Lulyay, Judge of Szeben led an army into Havasu to help Vlach Vajda Mihnea to the throne there. - II. Lajos was crowned King of Hungary in Szekesfehervar.


The Hungarians successfully defended the Karansebes Fortress in Temes County against the Turks. - Count George Brandenburg married Beatrix Frangepan, widow of Janos Corvin, and inherited the Hunyadi territories.


II. Ulaszlo agreed to a 1-year peace with the Turks.


The Turks laid an unsuccessful siege to Knin in Dalmatia. - The Szeklers rebelled against their nobles in Eastern Erdely.


The Turks defeated the army of Ban Imre Torok of Nandorfehervar at Szendro. - Sultan II. Bajezid resigned. His successor was I. Selim until 1520. The new Sultan ordered his Northern Beys and Pashas to constantly harrass and pillage South Hungary. - The Turkish-Hungarian peace talks were unsuccessful in Constantinopol, which was renamed to Istambul. - The Turks captured 4 fortresses in the Srebenica Bansag, by the Szava River. - Ispan Istvan Bathori of Temes destroyed a Turkish army pillaging at Illadia in Krasso County. - The Hungarians defeated the Turks at Jajca. - The permanent (mercenary) Hungarian army consisted of 7817 men (5547 cavalry, 1170 infantry and 1100 marines [naszad]).


The Turks captured 4 fortresses in Dalmatia. - The Turks laid a siege to the Blinj Fortress. Ban Peter Beriszlo of Horvatorszag destroyed the Turkish army at Dubica and relieved Blinj. The Turks lost 3000 men. - The Saxons of Erdely rebelled and replaced their nobles. - Erdely Vajda Janos Szapolyai led his punishing army into Turkish ruled Bulgaria and destroyed several smaller Turkish armies. - Ban Ambrus Sarkany of Nandorfehervar defeated the invading Turks. The Turkish loss was 800 men. - Vajda Janos Szapolyai was ordered to put down a rebellion in Nagyszeben.


The Turks laid an unsuccessful siege to Knin in Dalmatia. - Pope X. Leo called for a Crusade against the Turks. - The King's Council called for the Crusade throughout Hungary. About 40,000 crusaders, mostly peasants joined the Crusaders' camps at 7 locations. Cavalry Captain Gyorgy Dozsa Szekely was named to lead the Crusaders. The nobles started to worry about the large peasant army. - Erdely Vajda Janos Szapolyai again led his punishing army into Turkish ruled Bulgaria. - Within the Crusaders' army the nobles and the peasants started to fight against each other at Mezotur. The Crusaders were ordered to stop fighting and to follow Janos Szapolyai's army into Bulgaria against the Turks. Cardinal Tamas Bakocz ordered the Crusaders to stop recruiting more peasants. Gyorgy Dozsa refused the Cardinal's order and united several peasant armies at Bekes. The peasants defeated the nobles' army at Varad. Ispan Istvan Bathori's army defeated a peasant army led by Istvan Balogh. Janos Bornemissza, Commander of Buda disbanded 5000 Crusaders near Pest. - II. Ulaszlo and Cardinal Tamas Bakocz ordered all Crusaders to disband. Gyorgy Dozsa's army destroyed the Nagylak Fortress. He executed the captured nobles. The other nobles throughout the country started to organize their army against the peasants. Janos Szapolyai returned from Bulgaria. Gyorgy Dozsa's peasant army turned East and captured 3 fortresses in Arad County. The peasants led by Priest Marton defeated a noble army led by Janos Bebek at Eger. Gyorgy Dozsa reached Erdely, captured Lippa and laid a siege to Temesvar. Other peasant armies captured 5 fortresses in Bacs and Szerem counties. Gyorgy Dozsa's brother Gergely Dozsa organized more peasants in Pest and Heves counties. The Heves peasants vere defeated at Paszto and Debro. Gyorgy Dozsa captured the Solymos Fortress in Arad County. The peasants of Szerem County defeated the nobles at Kamanc. The peasants of Bihar captured Varad and Szekelyhid. The peasants captured Szikszo, Csanad and laid a siege to Debro. Commander Janos Bornemissza defeated Gergely Dozsa's peasant army at Gubacs. The peasants were defeated at Heves. The peasants led by Radoszlav Nagy captured the Becskerek Fortress in Torontal County. The peasants of Tolna County surrendered to Ferenc Hedervari's noble army. Additional peasants rebelled in Gyor, Sopron, Szabolcs, Szatmar and Ugocsa counties. The peasants of Temes captured the Becse, Cseri and Csak fortresses. Commander Janos Bornemissza defeated the peasants in Bacs and Bodrog counties. The nobles defeated the peasants led by priest Lorinc at Kolozsvar. Vajda Janos Szapolyai defeated the Gyorgy Dozsa led main peasant army at Temesvar. Gyorgy Dozsa was executed. The nobles defeated the priest Lorinc led peasants at Bihar. Priest Lorinc was burned. The remaining peasant armies were quickly defeated.


The Turks repeatedly pillaged Dalmatia and Horvatorszag. - Vajda Janos Szapolyai, Ispan Istvan Bathori and Ban Mihaly Paksy laid a siege on Zsarno (Avala) near Nandorfehervar. Bey Sinan of Szendro's relief army defeated the Hungarians. Ban Mihaly Paksi died in battle. - II. Ulaszlo, I. Miksa German Emperor and Polish King I. Zigmund arranged marriages between their chldren. Prince Ferdinand Habsburg married Polish Princess Anna Jagello. Lajos, son of II. Ulaszlo, married Princess Maria Habsburg in Vienna.


II. Ulaszlo died. His 10-year old son, II. Lajos succeded him on the Throne as Hungarian and Czech King. He ruled 1516-1526. The King's Council consisted of 6 barons, 6 pontiffs (fopap) and 16 nobles. - The population of Szlavonia decreased 17% in 12 years due to the Turkish invasions. Other South Hungarian territories had similar losses.


The National Council agreed not to allow German Emperor I. Miksa and Polish King I. Zigmund to influence II. Lajos Hungarian Child King. - Pasha Mustafa of Bosnia laid a siege to the Jajca Fortress. The Hungarian relief army led by barons Miklos Zrinyi and Ferenc Beriszlo defeated the Turks and Pasha Mustafa was killed in the battle.


The Turks laid an unsuccessful siege to the Nandorfehervar Fortress.


German-Roman Emperor I. Miksa died. His grandson, V. Carl was named new Emperor. He ruled until 1556. - II. Lajos and Sultan I. Selim agreed to a 3-year peace.


In spite of the 3-year peace agreement, Turkish troops invaded Szlavonia and defeated Cardinal Peter Beriszlo at the Korenica Creek. The Cardinal died in battle. - Sultan I. Selim died. His successor was Sultan I. Suleiman, ruled until 1566.


Sultan I. Suleiman left Istambut with a large army to invade Hungary. Provost Jeromos Balbi asked the German National Assembly for help against the Turks. - The Sultan split his army. Pasha Ahmed of Rumelia laid a siege to the Szabacs Fortress. The defenders were ViceBans Simon Logodui and Andras Torma. The fortress was captured by the Turks in a few days. - Bey Husrev of Szendro laid a siege to Nandorfehervar with 15,000 men. The defenders were ViceBans Balazs Olah and Mihaly More with only 700 men. The smaller Zimony Fortress next to Nandorfehervar surrendered after 8 days. - Pasha Mustafa invaded the Szeremseg and laid an unsuccessful siege to the Szalankemen Fortress. Bey Jahja-pasa-oglu Bali captured several smaller forts in the Szeremseg. The Sultan's main Turkish army started to build boat-bridges over the Szava River, but the flooding river destroyed the bridge. Bey Jahja-pasa-oglu Bali finally captured the vacated Szalankemen Fortress. Most captured fortresses were destroyed by the Turks. By August 1 the Sultan built up a 170,000 men army laying siege to Nandorfehervar. After 8 days the 700 defenders pulled back from the city walls to the Citadel. After 4 weeks of siege, only 70 defenders remained. ViceBan Balazs Olah agreed to surrender Nandorfehervar in exchange for his remaining troops' freedom. - II. Lajos assembled an army of 50,000 to fight the Turks and headed South. Sultan I. Suleiman avoided the battle and returned to Istambul. - The Black-Plague stricken Hungarian army disbanded at Mohacs.


Vlach Vajda Radu of Havasu defeated Bey Mehmed of Szilisztria in several battles, but after 3 moths of wars he sought refuge from the Hungarians in Erdely. - The Turks captured the Orsova Fortress. - The Hungarian Ambassador again asked for help against the Turks at the German National Assembly. - Commander Peter Monokovics successfully defended the Klissza Fortress from the attacking Turks led by Bey Husrev of Bosnia. - Vajda Janos Szapolyai of Erdely entered Havasu with his army and defeated Bey Mehmed at Grumazi. He chased out the Bey from Havasu to Nikapoly and to Sistov. Szapolyai restored Vlach Vajda Radu to the Havasu Throne and pulled back to Erdely. The Turks invaded Havasu again and defeated Radu at Gherghita and at Slatina. Radu was forced to abandon Havasu and took refuge in Erdely again. - Ferdinand Habsburg sent an Austrian army to help defend Horvatorszag from the Turks. - In October Janos Szapolyai and Vajda Radu entered Havasu and defeated the Turks in the Rucar and Dridu battles. Radu got his Havasu Throne back again. - The German National Assembly offered 4000 men instead of the 24,000 asked for by the Hungarians.


Bey Bali laid an unsuccesful siege to the Petervarad Fortress. - In April the Turks invaded Havasu again and Vajda Radu took refuge in Erdely again. - Bosnian Turks laid sieges to the Klissza and Kruppa fortresses. - Archbishop Pal Tomori assembled a 10,000 men army and headed South. Tomori's army destroyed the Turks led by Pasha Ferhad and Bey Bali in 3 battles at Nagyolaszi, Rednek and Szavaszentdemeter. The Turkish ships were also destroyed. The Turkish losses were 7000, the Hungarians' 600. - Archbishop Tomori started to rebuild the border fortresses destroyed by the Turks. Tomori also started to build a river flottilla on the Danube. - The Turks captured the Osztrovica Fortress in Dalmatia.


The Germans promised a 10,000 men army against the Turks. - Turks from Herzegovina laid a siege to the Klissza Fortress again. Peter Krusics, Commander of Zengg led a relief army to Klissza on ships and destroyed the Turkish army. - The Turks made several unsuccessful attempts to capture the Szoreny Fortress held by Ban Janos Kallay. Finally at their 4th attempt they captured Szoreny.


King II. Lajos' power was diminished. The royal income was about 10% of normal. The military and other officials were not paid. During the National Assembly the Barons and the smaller nobles separated into two camps with conflicting goals. - Jews led by Imre Szerencses took over operating the King's Treasury. The citizens of Buda started an uprising against the usurper Jews and corrupt Bishops. - Instead of helping against the Turks, German King V. Carl and French King I. Francoise were battled each other. - A united Turkish army laid a siege to the Jajca Fortress defended by Ban Peter Keglevics. Kristof Frangepan led a 16,000 men army to the besieged Jajca Fortress. Frangepan defeated the Turks and resupplied the fortress. On his way home he defeated another Turkish army. - II. Lajos, upon pressure from his Council seized the German-Jewish Fugger family copper mining holdings due to wide range corruption and tax evasion. - During the National Assembly the disagreements between the King, the Church, The Barons and the Nobles were increasing. - The King returned some of the Fugger family holdings to the Fuggers. This caused a miner rebellion. - The Turks offered safety to the Croatian nobles in Hungary if they allowed the Turks to attack Austria through Croatia. - Archbishop Pal Tomori led his army into Turkish territory and beat the Turks at Kolics and Szabacs. - A large number of Serbs took refuge in South Hungary. They brought a news of an imminent large Turkish invasion planned for 1526. - The Turks burned the Titel Fortress in Bacs County. - The marauding Turks started to take prisoners with them. The adults were used as slaves, the girls were taken to harems and the boys were trained to be Turkish mercenary soldiers, Yanichars. During the Turkish wars around 1 million Hungarians were taken as prisoners this way.


The King still was unable to pay the military and other officials. - The number of rebelling miners grew to 4000 and they took over the Besztercebanya Fortress. Nador Istvan Werboczy defeated the rebelling miners and executed the leaders. - Bey Bali unsuccessfully laid a siege to the Titel Fortress. After the siege the remaining defenders left the heavily damaged fortress. - During the National Assembly the fighting between the barons and nobles continued. - On April 23 the Sultan's 80,000 men army left Istambul against Hungary. - II. Lajos asked for help against the Turks from most of the Europeans: German Emperor V. Carl, English King VIII Henrik, Portugalian King III. John, Austrian Prince Ferdinand, Pope VII. Clemens and the Venetian Doge. None of them sent help. - King II. Lajos ordered all gold and silver to be melted into coins to cover the costs of building an army. The sole defender of the Southern border was Archbishop Pal Tomori with several hundred men. - Tens of thousands of Serbs moved North into Hungary to avoid the Turks. - On July 2 the Sultan's army started to cross the River Szava. King II. Lajos led his 4000 man army South by the River Danube. On July 27 the Sultan's army captured the Petervarad Fortress after a 2 week siege. II. Lajos ordered all peasants into war from Erdely, Horvatorszag and Szlavonia. On August 1 the Turks laid a sege to the Ujlak Fortress and captured it after 8 days. Other smaller forts near the Danube with minimal defensive forces were abandoned. Vajda Janos Szapolyai with his Erdely army headed towards the King's camp at Paks. On August 23 the Turks crossed the River Drava at Eszek. Commander Pal Tomori and Ispan Peter Perenyi attempted to slow down the advancing Turks between the River Drava and Karasica. On August 29 the main Hungarian army of 25,000 men fought one of the most important battles in Hungarian history against the Sultan's 80,000 men army. The leaders of the Hungarian army were Archbishop/Commander Pal Tomori, Ispan Gyorgy Szapolyai of Szepes and Ban of Horvatorszag, Ferenc Batthyanyi. The Hungarian losses were around 3000 cavalry, 10,000 infantry (including some European mercenaries). 7 Archbishops, including Pat Tomori and Laszlo Szalkai died, Chief Justice Janos Dragffy, Ambrus Sarkany and Commander Gyorgy Szapolyai also died. King II. Lajos escaped the battle, but he drowned in a flooding Csele Creek. - Vajda Janos Szapolyai did not reach the battlefield, he camped at the River Tisza by Szeged with 10,000 men. - Queen Maria and the defenders of Buda abandoned the fortress and escaped to Pozsony. - The Turks pillaged the area near Buda and on Sept 8 Sultan I. Suleiman entered the Buda Fortress without a fight. The pillaging Turks advanced until they reached the Gyor Fortress. On Sept 15 the Turks captured Pilismarot after a 3-day siege. They massacred 25,000 people there. On Sept 19 the Turks built a boat-bridge and started pillaging the left side of the Danube. The Sultan took all gold and silver he found in the churches and also sent the Corvina Library books on ships down the Danube. The Sultan burned down the City of Pest. The Sultan's army turned South between the Danube and Tisza rivers and started to head home, pillaging on the way. At Petervarad the local people set up defense in an ad-hoc fort. On Oct. 8 the Hungarians fought until the last man and caused large losses to the Sultan's army. The Sultan's army left Hungary at Nandorfehervar. The Turks left defenders in the Szerem County fortresses. - Ferdinand Habsburg laid claim to the Hungarian and Czech Thrones, vacated by the death of II. Lajos. The Czech nobles accepted Ferdinand on the Czech Throne. On November 10 the Hungarian National Assembly elected Erdely Vajda, Janos Szapolyai as King of Hungary in Szekesfehervar. He ruled as King I. Janos until 1540. - The widow Queen Maria ordered another Natonal Assembly in Pozsony, which elected Ferdinand Habsburg as King of Hungary. He ruled until 1564. The election of the 2nd King started a long civil war in Hungary. This also initiated the separation of the country into two East and West Hungary.


I. Janos held a National Assembly in Buda. Except for the few Ferdinand supporters, the Assembly agreed to put all their efforts into the war against the Turks and the defense of Hungary. - A large number of Serbians who took refuge in Southern Hungary rebelled under the leadership of Jovan Cerni and joined I. Ferdinand. Cerni declared war on King I. Janos. [As 'thanks' for the Hungarians for giving refuge and protection to the Serbs.] In April Jovan's Serbian peasants' army defeated new Erdely Vajda Peter Perenyi's army at Szollos in Arad County. - German Eperor V. Carl captured and pillaged Rome. (Sacco di Roma). - Peace talks between I. Janos and I. Ferdinand were unsuccessful. - I. Janos sent a strong army against Jovan Cerni. The Hungarians led by Bishop Imre Czibak defeated the Serbs. Jovan Cerni died a few days later and the remaining Serb army scattered into the Turkish territory. - Turkish Grand Vizier Ibrahim ordered his Pashas and Beys of the Northern border to assist Hungarian I. Janos in case of a Habsburg/German attack. Ibrahim considered Austria-Germany as the next enemy of the Turkish Empire. - On July 8 I. Ferdinand sent a 15,000 men army led by Count Casimir of Brandenburg against I. Janos. They entered Hungary at Pozsony (Pressburg - Bratislava) on July 31. I. Janos emptied and abandoned Buda and pulled back to Tokaj. I. Ferdinand marched into Buda on Aug 20. - Turks invaded the Unna Valley at the Horvat-Szlavon border. - Count Nicolaus Salm led Ferdinand's army and defeated I. Janos at Tokaj. I. Janos pulled back to Erdely. - I. Janos loyalist Horvat Ban Kristof Frangepan died. I. Janos' influence in West Hungary started to slide. - I. Ferdinand was crowned King of Hungary in Szekesfehervar. - The Turks led by Bey Sanjak finally captured the Jajca Fortress.


Sultan I. Suleiman accepted I. Janos as King of Hungary and offered help against the Habsburgs. - I. Janos started a campaign to recapture the Kassa Fortress from I. Ferdinand, but he was defeated by Ferdinand's army led by Hans Katzianer at Szina in Abauj County. I. Janos took refuge in Tarnow in Poland. Balint Torok captured I. Janos' most important fortress, Trencsen for I. Ferdinand. - Lojalist of I. Janos, Simon Athinai defeated Ferdinand's Commander Istvan Revai at Sarospatak and protected I. Janos' route home. - The barons of all areas East of the River Tisza declared their loyality to I. Janos.


Sultan I. Suleiman assembled a 200,000 men army and started to march towards Hungary. I. Ferdinand sent Ambassador Miklos Jurisics for peace talks with the Sultan. Offering yearly taxes to the Sultan was unsuccessful. - During a river boat battle between I. Ferdinand and the Turks the Serbs supporting Ferdinand deserted him and joined the Turks. Ferdinand's ships were destroyed at Erdod in Valko County. - The Sultan ordered his supporter, Vajda Peter Rares of Moldovia to invade South Erdely. The Vajda defeated Ferdinand's Commander Balint Torok in the Foldvar Battle at Brasso. - Ferdinand's Governing Council abandoned Buda and escaped to Austria. - I. Janos meet with I. Suleiman at Mohacs and confirmed their alliance against the Habsburgs on Aug 18. - Suleiman laid a siege to the Buda Fortress on Sept 3. The German defenders surrendered in 5 days. On Sept 14 Suleiman handed over Buda to I. Lajos and led the Turkish army against Vienna. The Sultan laid a siege to Vienna on Sept 22. He gave up the siege on Oct 15 and headed home for the Winter. The Sultan left 3000 Turks to support I. Janos. - I. Ferdinand sent an army led by Count Nicolaus Salm against I. Janos. They turned back after reaching Esztergom. - German King forced Pope VII. Clemens to excommunicate King I. Janos and his followers.


I. Janos called a National Assembly for the nobles of his territory. - The German National Assembly planned for wars against the Turks. I. Ferdinand initiated peace talks with the Sultan. I. Ferdinand named German Hans Katzianer to be Hungary's Supreme Commander. - Ferdinand sent General Wilhelm Roggendorf with his army against I. Janos to capture Esztergom and Buda. I. Janos called the promised Turkish army for help. However the "helping" Turkish army just pillaged Janos' territory. Peace talks between I. Janos and I. Ferdinand were unsuccessful. Peace talks between the Sultan and Ferdinand were unsuccessful. - General Rogendorff captured the Esztergom, Visegrad and Vac Fortresses and laid a siege to the Buda Fortress. Rogendorff was unsuccessful at Buda and returned home. - I. Janos chased out the recently settled Germans from Buda and replaced them with Hungarians.


I. Janos and I. Ferdinand agreed to a truce. The 2 kings agreed to keep the country split into 2 pieces. Independent National Assemblies in Belavar and later in Zakany (both in Somogy County) were unsuccessful to bring an order into running the country. West Hungary was controlled by the Habsburgs, while East Hungary (Erdely [Transylvania] and counties East of the River Danube) stayed independent for the time being.


The nobles held additional Assemblies but were unable to come up with a solution. - On April 25 Sultan I. Suleiman left Istambul with an over 100,000 men army to capture Vienna. The Hungarian nobles under I. Ferdinand's rule requested that unless the King sends a large enough army to protect them from the Turks, they will surrender to the Turks. Instead of sending an army, Ferdinand only sent a peace offering to the Sultan, which was rejected. In July Suleiman captured several Szlavonian fortresses. On Aug 10 Suleiman laid siege to the Koszeg Fortress. Koszeg was held by only 1000 men, mostly local peasants led by Commander Miklos Jurisics. After 20 days of siege, Suleiman and Jurisics agreed to a truce. The Germans assembled an 80,000 men army at Vienna. The Sultan's army broke into Austria, but did not engage with the large German army. The main Turkish army returned home. The Turkish river boat flottilla destroyed Ferdinand's flottilla at Komarom on the Danube. The Sultan's army heading home pillaged through Szlavonia. - In October I. Janos laid an unsuccessful siege to the Esztergom Fortress still held by Ferdinand.


Kings I. Janos and I. Ferdinand defeated a robber baron, Laszlo More and captured the Varpalota Fortress in Veszprem County. More escaped to the Turks. - Both Kings Janos and Ferdinand sent representatives to Istambul for peace talks with the Sultan.


Several barons in the Northern counties abandoned I. Janos and joined I. Ferdinand. - I. Janos' Governor Gritti, who became a traitor and secretly joined Ferdinand in Istambul, murdered Janos loyalist Bishop Imre Czibak. Gritti's army entered Medgyes, however the citizens rebelled against him. The Erdely nobles, including the Czibak relatives with the help of Moldavian Vajda Peter Rares laid a siege to Medgyes. After 4 weeks of siege Gritti was captured and executed. - Pope III. Paul accepted I. Janos as King of Hungary. - Out of the 11,000 peasant properties in Somogy County in 1526, now only 4500 were occupied. Other areas experienced similar depopulation.


Vajda Peter Rares of Moldovia became the feoffe (vassal) of I. (Habsburg) Ferdinand. - On Aug 21 Janos and Ferdinand agreed to a 5-month truce. - In November I. Ferdinand called a National Assembly. Ferdinand declared that he reduced the Hungarian nobles' power and started Germanization of the Hungary by bringing Austrian and German nobles into the country.


French King I. Francis and Sultan I. Suleiman became allies. War broke out between the French King and German Emperor V. Carl. - Suleiman executed his Grand Vizier Ibrahim. - I. Janos and I. Ferdinand extended the truce until April 1537. - In September Ferdinand broke the truce and his army attacked Szatmar County. I. Janos defeated the attacking army. - On Dec 4 Janos' General Lenart Czeczey captured Kassa from Ferdinand. Most of Ferdinand's German citizens were chased out of Kassa. - The Turks captured several fortresses, including Pozsega in Szlavonia.


Ferdinand sent an army led by Leonhard Vels in Northern Hungary against I. Janos, but he was turned back home at Tokaj. Ferdinand's General Hans Katzianer led a 30,000 men army to retake the bridge of Eszek from the Turks, but he was defeated at Gorian on Oct 9. - The 2 Kings continued their unsuccessful peace talks.


The 2 Kings agreed to a peace treaty, in which both sides kept their current territories and after the death of I. Janos, the Habsburgs will rule all of Hungary. - Janos lojalist Commander Balint Torok captured the Gyor Fortress. - On July 9 Sultan I. Suleiman led his army against Moldovia. On Aug 16 Janos asked for Ferdinand's help against the possible Turkish attack into Erdely. Ferdinand sent only 3500 men. I. Janos posted his armies at the passes through the Carpathian Mountan. - Suleiman defeated Vajda Peter Rares in Moldovia. Rares and his Vlach peasants too refuge in Erdely.


On March 2 Hungarian King I. Janos married Izabella, daughter of Polish King I. Zigmund in Szekesfehervar. - A Turkish army pillaged in Szlavonia in May. - The nobles of both Kings resumed their own peace talks.


The National Assembly was unsuccessful drawing a border between the 2 Kings' territories. - On July 7 Queen Izabella gave birth to a son, Janos Zsigmond. - On July 21 King I. Janos died. The Erdely nobles quickly accepted his son Janos Zsigmond as new 'Child' King, however later they declared that they will accept a new King elected by the full Hungarian National Assembly. Several loyalist supporters of I. Janos declared that they will accept the Habsburg rule. - The Erdely Assembly elected Istvan Maylad as new Captain-General. On Sept 13 the National Assembly elected Janos Zsigmond, son of I. Janos as II. Janos, King of Hungary. - Captain-General Istvan Maylad and his follower chased away the officials originally posted by I. Janos in Erdely. They also laid siege to 5 fortresses held by loyalists to I. Janos. - Sultan I. Suleiman accepted II. Janos as King of Hungary. - Ferdinand's General Leonhard Vels attacked and captured the Visegrad, Vac, Tata and Szekesfehervar fortresses, but he failed to take Buda. - In November the Erdely nobles accepted I. Ferdinand as King of Hungary. - Ferdinand's peace talks with the Sultan were unsuccessful and the Sultan promised to send his army against Ferdinand in 1541.


The National Assembly forced a truce between the Habsburgs and the Szapolyai supporters. - Bey Mehmed of Szendro pillaged the area between Vac and Szekesfehervar. Mehmed laid a siege to Pest. Ferdinand sent his General Wilhelm Roggendorff to relieve Pest with 30,000 men. Bey Mehmed quickly retreated. Roggendorff laid a siege to Buda, still in Szapolyai hands. - The West Hungarian Assembly, under pressure from the Sultan declared II. Janos as King. - On June 19 Sultan I. Suleiman left Istambul with his army to invade Hungary. - Moldovian Vlach Vajda Peter Rares became a traitor and set a trap for Captain-General Istvan Maylad at Fogaras. The captured Maylad was given to the Turks and died in Istambul. - In July the 2 Vlach vajdas Peter Rares Moldovian and Radu of Havasu invaded and pillaged Erdely. On Aug 21-23 Turkish and Hungarian armies destroyed the Habsburg Roggendorff's 30,000 army at Buda. On Aug 26 Suleiman's main army reached Buda. On Aug 29 the Sultan's army captured Buda by trickery. - The Sultan gave Eastern Hungary to Queen Izabella and Gyorgy Frater to govern. The cetral part of Hungary became the Buda Villajet of the Turkish Empire. The Sultan posted Pasha Suleiman as the 1st Beglerbey of Buda. The Sultan left only 3000 men in Buda. - The Northern Hungarian Assembly, including former I. Janos loyalists accepted I. Ferdinand as King. - Vajda Peter Rares of Moldovia invaded and pillaged Erdely again. - The NorthEastern Hungarian Assembly accepted I. Ferdinand as King.


The Erdely National Assembly accepted Gyorgy Frater as Guardian of King II. Janos. - I. Ferdinand assembled a 55,000 Austrian-Hungarian army and laid a siege to the Buda Fortress on Sept 28. After 10 days they gave up the siege. - Moldovian Vajda Peter Rares again invaded and pillaged Erdely from Brasso to Beszterce. After 10 days Gyorgy Frater chased them out of Hungary. - Queen Izabella refused to hand over Eastern Hungary to I. Ferdinand. - On Dec 30 the Turks captured Szeged on the River Tisza.


The Erdely Assembly declared that Queen Izabella outranked Governor Gyorgy Frater. - On April 23 Sultan I. Suleiman left Istambul for Hungary with a 100,000 men army. In May the 1st Turks captured several Szlavonian fortresses. - Queen Izabella sent the 1st 10,000 gold tax to the Sultan. - The Beglerbey or Rumelia captured the Valpo Fortress in Koros County. In July the Sultan's main army captured the Siklos and Pecs fortresses in Baranya County and several smaller fortresses in Tolna County. On July 23 the Sultan reached Buda and his army laid a siege to Esztergom, which they captured after 18 days. - The keep up with the increasing Turkish demands, the Erdely Assembly for the 1st time in history, requested taxes and services from the Szeklers, who were tax free. - On Aug 17 the Turks captured the Tata Fortress and destroyed it. Due to the approaching Turks the defending army of the Papa Fortress fled. However the citizens and the area peasants successfully defended the fortress against Pasha Ulema. - On Sept 3 the Sultan captured Szekesfehervar and soon after the main army headed home. - During all the Turkish activity I. Fedinand had a large Austrian and German army siiting nearby at Gyor, but did not engage the Turks. Apparently they only guarded the route to Vienna. - On Oct 4 Vlach Vajda Peter Rares of Moldovia again invaded and pillaged Erdely. [It is unbelieveable that nobody ever retaliated against this pest.]


The National Assembly decided that 75% of the country's income shall be spent on defense. - The Pasha of Buda captured 3 border fortresses in Tolna County and captured the Visegrad, Nograd and Hatvan Fortresses. Only the Leva Fortress stood up to the Turkish attacks. - German Emperor V. Carl promised a large military campaign to clear out the Turks from Hungary. - Ferenc Nyary defeated a Turkish army at Szalka in Hont County. - Pasha Ulema captured Velike and pillaged Szlavonia. - NorthEastern Counties Szatmar, Szabolcs, Bereg, Zemplen and Ung accepted II. Janos as King of Hungary.


Gyorgy Frater, Erdely Governor offered military assistance to German Emperor V. Carl against the Turks. V. Carl broke his promise made in 1544 and instead of a war against the Turks, he started peace talks with them. - Pasha Ulema of Bosnia defeated Ban Miklos Zrinyi at Szelnice in Szlavonia.


Commander Kristof Kavasy of Huszt rebelled and pillaged the Maramaros area. The I. Ferdinand sent Master Commander Andras Bathori of Ecsed to defeat Kavasy, which he did in 6 months. - German Emperor V. Carl started a war campaign against the Protestants.


German Emperor V. Carl and Turkish Sultan I. Suleiman signed a 5-year peace agreement. This included a 30,000 gold yearly tax to be paid by I. Ferdinand. The Hungarian nobles warned Carl that the Turks did not honor previous peace treaties.


The German national Assembly sent 100,000 gold to help rebuilding/reinforcing the Hungarian border fortresses. The Germans refused to provide any military help.


Due to lacking central control more barons turned rogue ("robber barons"). I. Ferdinand's Commander Nicolaus Salm defeated and executed Baron Matyas Baso in Murany. Salm also captured the Csabrag and Leva Fortresses from rebel Ispan Menyhert Balassa of Hont. - On Sept 8 Queen Izabella and II. Andras child king renounced their right to the Hungarian Throne for the benefit of I. Ferdinand. In exchange they received 2 princedoms in Silezia and 100,000 gold Forints from Ferdinand. Gyorgy Frater remained as Governor of Erdely. With this agreement the Habsburgs took official control of all non-Turkish held Hungarian territories. - Based on tax records of the Hungarian territory under Ferdinand's rule, not including Erdely, Horvatorszag and Szlavonia had 75,000 land propertes (farms) and 3000 noble families.


During the National Assembly I. Ferdinand declared that his son Prince Miksa is the new Governor of Hungary. - The Turks started to build a new fortress in Szolnok at the River Tisza. Ferdinand's army defeated the Turks and finished building the Szolnok Fortress. - Due to strong support in Erdely, Queen Izabella refused to hand over her territories to Gyorgy Frater representing Ferdinand. Turkish Abassador Mahmud Csausz declared that the Sultan did not approve the removal of Queen Izabella from the Throne. The Turks sent an army of Serbs led by Peter Petrovich to invade Erdely. Petrovics captured Gyorgy Frater's fortresses Alvince and Deva, pillaged and burned Branyicska and Csanad. Gyorgy Frater laid a siege to Izabella's fortress, Gyulafehervar. - Pasha Kasim of Buda arrived in Lippa with his army. The Sultan sent Vajda Elias of Moldva to attack the Barcasag and Haromszek in Transylvania. The Sultan also sent his ally Vajda Mirche of Havasu to attack Nagyszeben through the Carpathian Vorostorony Pass. Gyorgy Frater with the help of the Szekler peasants defeated Vajda Elias' Vlach army. Lord Lieutenant (Foispan) Janos Torok of Hunyad defeated Pasha Kasim's army at Deva. The Hungarians and Saxons defeated Vajda Mirche's Vlach army at Nagyszeben. - Queen Izabella and Gyorgy Frater agreed to a truce.


During the Erdely Assembly Gyorgy Frater declared the his and the Queens army is insufficient to stand up to the Turks. He offered to hand over Eastern Hungary to I. Ferdinand if he sends an army to protect it. - The Sultan ordered the nobles to accept Queen Izabella and II. Janos to rule East Hungary and keep it separated from West Hungary. - I. Ferdinand sent General Gian Battista Castaldo with 3000 men into East Hungary. Ferdinand's Hungarian loyalists sent 4000 men to join Castaldo in Debrecen. Gyorgy Frater laid a siege to the Queen's fortress, Gyulafehervar. Frater defeated a relief army coming to the aid of the Queen. Castaldo captured Kolozsvar. Queen Izabella surrendered Gyulafehervar. The Queen handed over the Saint Crown to Castaldo on July 21. The Queen and his son II. Janos moved to their property in Silezia, part of Poland. Gyorgy Frater was confirmed by Ferdinand as Governor of Erdely. - On Sept 1 BeglerBey Mehmed Sokollu invaded Hungary. He captured the Becse, Becskerek and Csanad fortresses and other smaller forts. The Serbs of the Lippa Fortress opened the doors to Mehmed Sokollu. On Oct 17 Sokollu laid a siege to Temesvar. Captain Istvan Losonczy successfully defended Temesvar, Sokollu returned home. - Governor Gyorgy Frater and General Castaldo laid a siege to Lippa and captured it in 4 weeks on Nov 28. The defender Pasha Ulema was captured, but Gyorgy Frater released the Turkish prisoners against Castaldo's order. On Dec 17 Castaldo had Gyorgy Frater murdered in Alvince. Castaldo was named by the King as new Governor of Erdely.


On Feb 20 Judge Mihaly Toth led a Haiduk army and recaptured Szeged from the Turks. (The Haiduks [or Hajdus] were ethnic people allowed to settle in Central Hungary centuries earlier. Throughout history they remained loyal to the Hungarians.) 10 days later Pasha Ali Hadim of Buda retook Szeged. - I. Ferdinand promised to the Hungarian nobles that he will not put foreign officials and nobles into power in Hungary. Andras Bathori was named new Vajda of Erdely, replacing foreign General Castaldo. - On April 22 a large Turkish army left Drinapoly and headed towards Hungary. - Pasha Ali Hadim captured the Veszprem Fortress. - On June 11 the large Turkish army led by Pasha Ahmed Kara reached Hungary. On June 24 Pasha Ahmed laid a siege to the Temesvar Fortress, which was defended by Captain Istvan Losonczy with 2300 men. - On July 4 Turkish ally Vajda Stephan Rares of Moldova invaded Hungary with his Vlach army. He pillaged and burned the Szekelyfold (Szeklers Land) and the Barcasag, the Schwabs' land. - On July 6 Pasha Ali Hadim laid a siege to the Dregely Fortress. The defenders led by Captain Gyorgy Szondy fought until the last man. - On July 11 I. Ferdinand's mercenary army stationed in Erdely rebelled, pillaged and burned Kolozsvar and 2 weeks later Gyulafehervar. - On July 27 Pasha Ahmed besieging Temesvar offered to allow honorable withdrawal of the remaining defenders. Once the defenders exited the fortress, the Turks dishonorably broke their word and massacred the Hungarians. - On July 30 Spanish mercenary Captain Aldana abandoned the Lippa Fortress with his army and fled. The defenders of the Solymos Fortress in Arad County also fled. Pasha Ahmed marched into both fortresses without a fight. - Pasha Ali Hadim of Buda captured the Szecseny, Holloko, Bujak, Sag and Balassagyarmat fortresses in Nograd County. - Another Turkish army invaded Szlavonia and pillaged and burned cities and villages there for 5 months. - By Aug 11 Pasha Ahmed's army captured the Lugos and Karansebes fortresses and completely took over the Temeskoz and Zarand counties. - I. Ferdinand's General Erasmus Teuffel lost a battle against Pasha Ali Hadim at Palast in Hont County. Teuffel was executed by the Pasha. - On Aug 22 Pasha Ali Hadim and Commander Ahmed Kara's united army laid a siege to Szolnok. The defeders led by Captain Lorinc Nyary held the fortress for 2 weeks. - On Sept 9 Pashas Ali Hadim, Ahmed and Mehmed Sokoli united their army, which reached 70,000, and laid a siege to the Eger Fortress. Eger was defended by Captain Istvan Dobo and 2000 men. After a 5-week bloody battle the Turks were unable to capture Eger. After their 1st loss of the year the Turks returned to their home bases. This was one of the most significant Hungarian victory during the Hungarian-Turkish wars.


General Castaldo and his neglected Austrian mercenaries left Erdely. - Vajda Mircse of Havasu invaded and pillaged Erdely. - Peter Petrovics of Munkacs led an army to Debrecen against the Habsburgs. Habsburg loyalists Lord Lieutant Ferenc Tahy and Bishop Matyas Szabardi defeated Petrovics, who escaped to Poland - Moldovian Vlach troops invaded and pillaged Szekler Land.


Sultan I. Suleiman ordered that Janos Zsigmond Szapolyai shall be reinstated to the throne of East Hungary (Erdely). The Sultan threatened with attacks by the neighboring Turkish beys and Vlach Vajdas of Havasu and Moldovia (under Turkish control). - Tojgun, Pasha of Buda captured the Fulek and Salgo fortresses in Nograd County. - Captain Gergely Bornemissza of Eger was captured by the Turks at Poroszlo. He was executed in Istambul in 1555.


Tojgun, Pasha of Buda captured Kaposvar, Korokna and Babocsa Fortresses in Somogy County. - The Habsburgs paid taxes to the Turks to keep West Hungary.


German-Roman Emperor V. Carl resigned and his younger brother I. Ferdinand became the new Emperor. - Ali Pasha of Buda laid an unsuccessful 7-week siege to the Szigetvar Fortress. Miklos Zrinyi recaptured the Babocsa Fortress. - Habsburg Prince Ferdinand led a 10,000 men army against the Turks near Szigetvar. He retook the Korotna Fortress. - Janos Zsigmond was reinsatated to the East Hungarian Throne. The child king and his mother Queen Izabella left Poland and returned to Kolozsvar.


Turkish Bey Hamza of Esztergom took the Tata Fortress by a surprise attack. - The East Hungarian National Council declared the freedom of religion. - I. Ferdinand's troops took the Nagyszollos Fortress from Izabella.


Queen Isabella's army laid an unsuccessful siege to take Kisvarda Fortress from I. Ferdinand. - Habsburg loyalists Ferenc Bebek and the Kendi brothers were executed by Izabella. - Captain Imre Telekessy defeated the army of the Turkish Bey of Fulek at the Kaza Field in Borsod County.


Janos Zsigmond and I. Fdinand signed a peace treaty. - Queen Izabella died. His son, Janos Zsigmond took full control of East Hungary.


The peace treaty between Janos Zsigmond and I. Ferdinand was renewed.


Menyhart Balassa, the most powerful land baron in East Hungary switched his alliance from Janos Zsigmond to I. Ferdinand. - The population of whole Hungary (minus the Turkish held territories) was 3.5 million. This included 3800 land barons and 90,000 nobles.


The East Hungarian National Council ordered and sent an army to recapture the traitor Menyhart Balassa's lands from I. Ferdinand. Captain Ferenc Zay defeated the East Hungarians at Hadad in Szolnok County. The peace treaty was renewed between Janos Zsigmond and I. Ferdinand. - Pasha Ibrahim of Buda unsuccessfully laid a siege to the Szatmar Fortress. - Menyhart Balassa laid a siege to the Szecseny Fortress, but Bey Hassan successfully defended it. - I. Ferdinand and I. Suleiman agreed to an 8-year peace treaty.


Janos Zsigmond and I Ferdinand renewed their peace treaty. Janos Zsigmond's offer to stregthen the peace with a marriage between the 2 families was rejected by Ferdinand.


Emperor I. Ferdinand died. his son I. Miksa was named new German-Roman Emperor. - Janos Zsigmond recaptured Szatmar, Hadad and Nagybanya fortresses from traitor baron Menyhart Balassa.


Emperor I. Miksa's troops captured Tokaj, Szatmar, Erdod, Szerencs and Nagybanya from Janos Zsigmond. The King and the Emperor agreed to a peace treaty. - The Turkish navy laid an unsuccessful siege to the Island of Malta. - Pasha Mehmed Sokollu was named Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. - Janos Zsigmond with the help of Hassan Turkish Pasha of Temesvar retook the Erdod, Nagybanya and Szatmar fortresses from the Habsburgs.


The Turks captured the Ajnacsko Fortress in Gomor County. - On May 1, Sultan I. Suleiman left Istambul with a large army to invade the German controlled West Hungary. - Arslan Pasha of Buda laid a siege to the Varpalota Fortress defended by Gyorgy Thury. Captain Nicolas Salm of Gyor led a relief army to Varpalota and defetaed the attacking Turks. Captains Thury and Salm also recaptured the Veszprem and Tata Fortresses from the Turks. Pasha Arslan was executed by the Sultan for his losses. - Pasha Pertev attacked the Gyula Fortress with 30,000 men and captured it after a 6-week siege. Pasha Pertev also captured the Borosjeno and Vilagos fortresses. - The King's Captains Thury and Salm retook the Gesztes and Vitany fortresses in Komarom County. - I. Miksa assembled a 50,000 men army by Gyor, but did not engage the Turkish armies. Apparently he only cared to block the route to Vienna. - On Aug. 6 the Sultan started the siege to the Szigetvar Fortress, which was defended by Count Miklos Zrinyi with a small army. I Suleiman died during the siege, but his death was kept a secret. The Turks destroyed the fortress with cannon fire. Insted of surrendering, Zrinyi and the defenders broke out from the ruins died heroical battle. [One of the most famous battle in Hungarian history, referred to as "Zrinyi's Breakout".] - II. Selim was named new Sultan in Istambul. He ruled 1566-1574. - The Turk's army in Hungary captured the Vizvar, Gesz, Babocsa, Csakany and Csurgo Fortresses in Somogy County, then left Hungary.


I. Miksa's loyalist Lazarus Schwendi, Captain of Kassa captured Szadvar and Munkacs fortresses from Janos Zsigmond. - The Turks captured the Dedes Fortress in Borsod County.


Emperor I. Miksa and Sultan II. Salim agreed to a peace treaty, and a yearly tax of 30,000 gold payment to the Turks.


An anti-Turkish uprising broke out under the leadership of Gyorgy Karacsony, and they captured the Torokszentmiklos and Debrecen fortresses.


The Gyorgy Karacsony rebellion was put down and Karacsony was executed in Debrecen. - Janos Zsigmond and I. Miksa made an agreement in Speyer: Janos Zsigmond gave up his title as King of Hungary, he was named Fejedelem of Eastern Hungary (Erdely/Transylvania and surrounding territories). [Fejedelem is an ancient Hungarian title, same position and power as a king but without a crown.] His title was inheritable on the male side. Janos Zsigmond was to be married to Bavarian Princess Maria, niece of I. Miksa.


Fejedelem Janos Zsigmond died suddenly. The National Assembly of Eastern Hungary elected Istvan Bathory of Somlya as new Fejedelem. He ruled until 1586. - The Szeklers rebelled unsuccessfully against Bathory in Csik. - The united Spanish-Venetian navy led by Don Juan d'Austria destroyed the Ottoman Navy at the Lepanto Battle.


The National Assembly of West Hungary was forced to accept Habsburg Prince Rudolf as King of Hungary. I. Rudolf was crowned in Pozsony and ruled until 1608. - A peasant rebellion was started in Horvatorszag (Croatia).


Gaspar Alapy, Ban of Horvatorszag defeated the 6-months old peasant rebellion and the leader, Gubec Matei was burned. - The Turks pillaged Kanizsa. - Traitor Baron Gaspar Bekes of Fogaras sided with the Habsburgs in Erdely. Fejedelem Istvan Bathori defeated and chased away Bekes.


Sultan II. Salim died. III. Murad was named new Sultan. he ruled until 1595.


Traitor Baron Gaspar Bekes organized the Saxons and Szeklers to rebel against Fejedelem Istvan Bathori. On July 8 Bathory defeated the rebells at Kereloszentpal in Kukullo County. Bekes escaped, but 5 other rebel barons were captured and hanged. The courts executed 43 additional rebelling nobles. - I. Miksa Roman-German Emperor and III. Murad Sultan of Turkey agreed to an 8-year peace. - On Dec 14 the Polish National Assembly in Cracow elected Hungarian Fejedelem Istvan Bathory as King of Poland. - In spite of the "peace agreement", the Ottoman Turks captured during 1575 - 76 towns and villages and took 3000 people into slavery.


While Istvan Bathori was performing his duty as King of Poland, his brother, Kristof Bathori was named Vajda of Erdely. Istvan Bathori was crowned in Cracow. He ruled Poland until 1586. - Emperor I. Miksa died in Vienna. His son I. Rudolf became new German-Roman Emperor. I. Rudolf named his younger brother, Ernie to be Governor of West Hungary. - I. Rudolf moved the Saint Hungarian Crown to Prague.


Istvan Bathori reconciled with rebel baron Gaspar Bekes. - The combined number of permanent infantry and cavalry in the Hungarian border fortresses were 12,240. The Ottomans stationed 47,050 men to defend the captured Hungarian territory.


I. Rudolf posted Habsburg Prince Carl as Governor of Croatia and Slovenia. - The Ottomans started a war with Persia, it lasted until 1590.


Istvan Bathori as King of Poland led a combined Polish and the 4000 men East Hungarian army against Ivan The Terrible, Tzar of Russia.


Kristof Bathori, Vajda of East Hungary died. His young son, Zsigmond Bathori became his successor as new Vajda. The Guardians of Zsigmond were Jesuits.


Istvan Bathori, King of Poland, Fejedelem of East Hungary and Ivan the Terrible Russian Tzar agreed to a 10 year peace. - Pope XIII. Gregory ordered his new 'Gregorian' Calendar to be used.


German-Roman Emperor I. Rudolf and Ottoman Sultan III. Murad renewed their peace treaty.


Istvan Bathori and I. Rudolf exchanged territories at their border.


Upon pressure from the nobles Istvan Bathori named Captain Janos Ghyczy of Varad to be Guardian of Zsigmond Bathory. Technically Ghyczy became the Vajda of East Hungary.


Istvan Bathori, King of Poland and Fejedelem of Hungary died on Dec 13 in Poland.


Captain Ferenc Nadasdy re-captured the Koppany Fortress in Somogy County in a surprise attack. The Sultan had his Pasha of Buda (the Supreme Commander of occupied Hungary) executed as punishment. - The Council of Polish Barons elected Habsburg Miksa as new King. The Polish Nobles elected John Sigmund Vasa, Crown Prince of Sweden as new King of Poland. III. Sigmund ruled Poland until 1632. - Count Jan Zamoyski, Chancellor of Poland asked and received military help from Zsigmond Bathori to help III. Sigmund onto the Polish Throne. The Hungarian army was led by Boldizsar Bathori. - West Hungarian Count Gyorgy Zrinyi, and Captains Ferenc Nadasdy and Boldizsar Batthyany destroyed the Turks at Kanizsa.


The united Polish-Hungarian forces chased out King Elected Habsburg Miksa from Poland. III. Sigmund was confirmed as King of Poland. - Zsigmond Rakoczi, Captain of Eger destroyed a much larger 10,000 men Ottoman army at Szikszo in Abauj County. - Peter Huszar, Captain of Veszprem recaptured the Gesztes Fortress in Komarom County from theTurks. - Zsigmond Bathori was emancipated and he became Fejedelem of East Hungary. - The Spanish Armada was destroyed by the English.


I. Sigmund Polish King and I. Rudolf German-Roman Emperor agreed to a peace treaty. - Prince Habsburg Miksa renounced the Polish Throne.


I. Rudolf and Sultan III. Murad renewed their peace agreement.


Ottoman Pasha Hassan of Bosnia invaded and pillaged Zagrab County. To retaliate Tamas Erdody, Ban of Horvatorszag invaded and pillaged Bosnia.


Ottoman Pasha Hassan captured the Bihacs Fortress and 3 months later the Pasha defeated Ban Tamas Erdody at Petrinja.


During the last 2 years the Ottoman Turks captured 26 fortresses and took 35,000 slaves from Horvatorszag and Szlavonia. - Pasha Hassan with 22,000 men attacked the Sziszek Fortress in Zagrab County. The West Hungarian relief army destroyed the Pasha's army. This battle is considered the starting point of the "15 Year War". Sultan III. Murad declared war on I. Rudolf and West Hungary. The Sultan requested that the Fejedelem of East Hungary, Zsigmond Bathori shall join him. Instead of helping the Turks, Zsigmond Bathori sent envoys to I. Rudolf, Pope XIII Clemens and Queen Elisabeth seeking alliance against the Sultan. The Sultan's Grand Vizier, Sinan catured Veszprem and Varpalota in October. The Turks killed all defenders. I. Rudolf's army led by Captain Ferdinand Hardegg of Gyor laid an unsuccessful siege to the Szekesfehervar Fortress. Baron Miklos Palffy defeated the Turks in a battle by Pakozd in Fejer County. Upper Hungarian troops defeated the Turks at Romhany in Nograd County. Captain Balint Balassa recaptured the Diveny and Fulek fortresses in November. In December the King's army recaptured the Szecseny, Bujak, Kekko, Somosko, Holloko, Dregely, Palank and Ajnacsko fortresses in Nograd, Hont and Gomor counties.


Miklos Palffy re-captured the Nograd Fortress, Count Gyorgy Zrinyi re-captured the Berzence, Csurgo and Babocsa fortresses in March. Ban Gyorgy Palatics of Lugos entered Turkish controlled Bosnia and organized the Slavs there into an anti-Turk alliance. The West Hungarian noble's army led by Baron Simon Forgach defeated Pasha Hassan of Buda at Tura in Pest County. - Prince Habsburg Mathias led his 35,000 men army and laid a siege to the important Esztergom Fortress. - The East Hungarian National Council decided not to enter the war. A rebellion broke out and Fejedelem Zsigmond Bathori executed 10 rebelling nobles. - Turkish Grand Vizier Sinan arrived with his large army and captured the Tata Fortress in Komarom County in July. Sinan laid a siege to the Gyor Fortress defended by Count Ferdinand Hadegg with 6000 men. Pasha Mehmed, son of Sinan, captured the Pannonhalma Fortress. Prince Miksa re-captured the Petrinja and Sziszek fortresses in Zagrab County in August. - Baron Miklos Palffy defeated the Turkish army sent to relieve the sieged Esztergom Fortress at Vorosvar in Pilis County. - Apparently in alliance with the Turks a Mongolian (Tatar) army entered Hungary at Maramaros County. The Mongols pillaged Debrecen, Kecskemet and advanced to Gyor. Turkish reinforcements also reached Gyor. Prince Mathias gave up the siege of Esztergom and insted of trying to relieve Gyor, he pulled back to Magyarovar. The defender of Gyor, Count Ferdinand Hardegg, without help capitulated to the overwhelming enemy. A punishment, he was tried and beheaded in Vienna. - Fejedelem Zsigmond Bathory agreed to a Christian Alliance with Vajda Michael of Havasu and Vajda Aron of Moldovia. The population of Havasu and Moldovia was about 75% Vlach and 25% Hungarian. The allied East Hungarian and Moldovian armies defeated the Turks in Moldovia and chased them out of the country. - Grand Vizier Sinan laid an unsuccessful siege to the Komarom Fortress in October. The Turks lost 8000 men there. Pasha Mehmed captured the Papa Fortress. - I. Rudolf named Count Carl Mansfeld a new Supreme Commander of the West Hungarian armies. - Pope XIII. Clemens sent a 10,000 men mercenary army to help Hungary against the Turks.


Captain Istvan Bocskai of Varad represented Fejedelem Bathori on the West Hungarian National Assembly. An anti-Turkish alliance was agreed between East and West Hungary in January. - III. Mehmed became new Sultan of the Turkish Empire. He ruled until 1603. - Bathory named Gyorgy Borbely as Ban of Karansebes. Borbely recaptured the Temesvar area from the Turks in May. - Vajda Aron of Moldovia broke the alliance and started negotiations with the Turks. Bathori captured Aron and named Stephan Razvant as new Vajda of Moldovia. - General Carl Mansfeld laid a siege to the Esztergom Fortress with 75,000 men on July 1. Pasha Hassan of Buda led a relief army to Esztergom, but Mansfeld destroyed the Pasha's army. - On Aug 6 Fejedelem Zsigmond Bathori married Austrian Princess Maria Cristierna, in accordance with the alliance agreement between East and West Hungary. - General Carl Mansfeld died in dysentery. Prince Mathias succeded him. - Bathori's army re-captured the Lippa Fortress in Temes County. - Grand Vizier Sinan captured the capital of Havasu, Bucharest on Aug 23. Vajda Michael pulled back into the Carpathian Mountains. - In September Prince Mathias finally captured the Esztergom Fortress from Bey Ali Kara, however the same time Turks captured the Visegrad, Vac and Zsambek fortresses. - For promised special privileges 25,000 Szeklers joined Bathori's army against the Turks. The Hungarian-Szekler army headed South and united with the army of Vajda Michael. They re-captured the Tergovistye Fortress on Oct 18 and defeated the Grand Vizier Sinan's army at Gyurgyevo on Oct 29. Bathori's other army led by Gyorgy Borbely re-captured Jeno, Arad, Vilagos and 10 additional fortresses. - Prince Miksa laid an unsuccessful 3-week siege to the Szolnok Fortress.- 4 major religions in East Hungary: Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist & Jesuit.


The re-captured territories from the Turks were given back to their original Hungarian owners and heirs. - A Szekler rebellion was put down by Captain Istvan Bocskai. Some of the Szeklers moved to Moldovia and Havasu seeking more independence, while Vlachs from Moldovia and Havasu moved to Transylvania seeking refuge from the Turks. - In May the Turks laid an unsuccessful siege to the Lippa Fortress. - The invading Mongols pillaged the area between the Koros and Maros rivers. - Bathori laid an unsuccessful siege to the Temesvar Fortress in June. - Prince Miksa captured the Hatvan Fortress in Heves County after a 2-week siege in September. Sultan III. Mehmed led his large main army against the Eger Fortress. Prince Miksa refused to help the defenders of Eger and the Fortress fell to the Sultan. Prince Miksa and Fejedelem Bathori joined their forces, but the Sultan defeated them in a bloody 3-day battle at Mezokeresztes in Borsod County. The Turks pillaged 106 villages in the area and took 10,000 slaves. The Sultan established his 3rd Vilajet in Hungary, around Eger.


Baron Miklos Palffy re-captured the Tata Fortress on March 21 and the Papa Fortress on Aug 20. Prince Miksa laid an unsuccessful 4-week siege to the Gyor Fortress. On Sept 12 Pasha Mehmed re-captured the Tata Fortress. Mehmed laid a siege to Nogradveroce, but Miklos Palffy's relief army defeated the Turks. In October Bathori's army laid an unsuccessful siege to the Temesvar Fortress. - The invading Mongols pillaged villages in Pest County.


Baron Miklos Palffy and Baron Adolf Schwarzenberg led their combined army and re-captured the important Gyor Fortress on March 29. - Fejedelem Zsigmond Bathori renounced his throne and gave East Hungary to German-Roman Emperor I. Rudolf. Rudolf named Bathori's wife Maria to govern East Hungary, but 2 weeks later he gave the governorship to Prince Miksa. Vajda Michael of Havasu declared his allegiance to I. Rudolf. - Ban Andras Barczy of Karansebes destroyed Pasha Suleiman's army in the Lugos Battle in Bihar County on July 6. - Barons Palffy and Schwarzenberg re-captured the Tata, Gesztes, Veszprem, Palota and Nagyvazsony fortresses during Aug and Sept. - On Aug 22 Zsigmond Bathori returned and reclaimed his throne of East Hungary. - In September Pasha Saturdzhi led a 50,000 men army against East Hungary. The Pasha captured the Csanad, Nagylak and Arad Fortresses and laid an unsuccessful 4-week siege to the Varad Fortress on Oct 3. - Prince Mathias laid an unsuccessful 4-week siege to the ex-capital, Buda Fortress.


The Mongolian army stationed in the Turkish controlled area near Szeged restarted their pillage in February. 1st they pillaged the Dunantul (West of the River Danube), then near Miskolc and Rozsnyo. The Mongols defeated the King's army at Sajovamos in Borsod County. - During the East Hungarian National Assembly Zsigmond Bathori again renounced his Throne. [So far I found no reason for his reluctance to be a Fejedelem]. Zsigmond Bathori moved to Poland. The Assembly elected his relative Cardinal Andras Bathori as new Fejedelem. He ruled only until November. - I. Rudolf did not accept Andras Bathori as Fejedelem and claimed the Throne of East Hungary for himself. - Baron Miklos Palffy re-captured Szekesfehervar on May 9. The ethnic Haiduks (Hajdu), mercenaries of Palffy, killed several thousand Turks in Tolna County in revenge for the Turks' slaughter of the Haiduks in Bihar County. - Vajda Michael of Havasu pledged his allegiance to Fejedelem Andras Bathori. - The Haiduk army captured the Valpo Fortress in Veroce County in June. They captured Pasha Suleiman at Felheviz near Buda. They sent the Pasha as a gift to Vienna. - Grand Vizier Ibrahim arrived to Buda with a large army on Sept 18. - Vajda Michael of Havasu stirred up the Szeklers against Andras Bathori. Michael led his 24,000 men army into Hungary. 12,000 Szeklers joined him. The combined Vlach-Szekler army defeated Bathori's army at Sellenberk in Saxonia on Oct 28. The Vajda captured Gyulafehervar 3 days later. The escaping Andras Bathori was killed by the Szeklers. - The Haiduk army destroyed a Turkish Camp at Szendro in Borsod County in October. - I. Rudolf named Vajda Michael as Governor of East Hungary. Rudolf also sent Istvan Bocskai to represent the King's interests. Vajda Michael and Bocskai clashed, and Bocskai pulled back to Bihar County. - A 3-year rebellion broke out in Anatolia under the leadership of Kara Jazidzhi, which kept the Turks busy there. - The population of full Hungary was 3.1 million living on 320k sq.km. The King's West Hungary was 1.5 million living on 115k sq.km, (including the territories now called Croatia-Slovenia with .3 million on 25k sq.km), East Hungary was .75 million on 90k sq.km, Turkish Hungary was .85 million on 115k sq.km.


Vajda Michael declared war on Moldovia in April and laid a siege to the Szucsava Fortress in Moldovia on May 16. Michael defeated Vajda Jeremias Movila of Moldovia at Chozim. Michael declared his son, Petrasko as new Vajda of Moldovia. - 1500 unpaid French mercenaries in the King's Papa Fortress rebelled and offered the fortress to the Turks for 100,000 gold. The King's army surrounded the fortress. The mercenaries broke out and most of them escaped to the Turks. - Turkish Grand Vizier Ibrahim captured the Babocsa and Kiskomarom Fortresses and laid a siege to Kanizsa in Zala County in August. - The East Hungarian National Assembly declared their displeasure with the Vlach Vajda's discriminatory treatment benefiting the Vlach minority. The Hungarian nobles organized their army in Torda, the Vlach Vajda organized his army in Szaszsebes. The Hungarian nobles recruited Hungarians from the Northern Counties. They elected Istvan Csaky as leader. Count Giorgio Basta General entered Erdely with 6000 men. Polish Chancellor Zamoyski sent an army through Moldovia. Ex-Fejedelem Zsigmond Bathory sent his 7000 men army stationed in Poland to help the Hungarians under the leadership of Mozes Szekely. The united armies destroyed Vajda Michael's army at Miriszlo in Also-Feher County on Sept 18. General Basta captured Gyulafehervar on Sept 20. Zamoyski's Polish army defeated Michael's son Petrasko at the River Szeret on Oct 15. Petrasko escaped to Erdely. The Polish army defeated Vajda Michael's main army at Ploesti in Havasu. The Vajda escaped to Vienna. - After a 2-month siege Captain Georg Paradeiser surrendered the Kanizsa Fortress to Grand Visier Ibrahim. Paradeiser was later beheaded in Vienna. The Turks established their 4th Hungarian Vilajet centered in Kanizsa.


The East Hungarian National Assembly was split into 2 sides, one supporting the former Fejedelem Zsigmond Bathory, the other supporting the Habsburgs. - Bathori returned to Erdely from Poland on March 24 and he was reinstated as Fejedelem on April 3. - I. Rudolf sent Vajda Michael back to Erdely to organize the anti-Bathori Habsburg loyalists. Bathori captured some of Vajda Michael's followers and executed them. The King's loyalist General Basta joined the Vajda's army at Szatmar. The combined army of the Vajda and the General defeated Bathori at Goroszlo in Szilagy County on Aug 3. Bathori escaped to Moldovia. His Commander, Mozes Szekely went to the Turks. The winners' alliance did not last long, General Basta assassinated Vajda Michael. Batori returned to Brasso and reorganized his army. With Turkish help he had 30,000 men stationed in Medgyes. General Bast was stationed at Des in Belso-Szolnok County with 17,000 men. - The King's army laid a siege to the important Szekesfehervar Fortress on Sept 9 and captured it in 11 days. - Prince Ferdinand laid a siege to the Kanizsa Fortress with 28,000 men, but 6 weeks later he abandoned the attack. - The King's army led by Mercoeur destroyed Grand Vizier Hassan's army at Sarret in Fejer County after a 15-day battle ending on Oct 24. - General Basta's Captain Lajos Rakoczi defeated Mozes Szekely at Nagydemeter on Nov 1. General Basta pulled back to Bihar County for the Winter. - Fejedelem Bathori restored the Szeklers' rights.


I. Rudolf named General Basta as Supreme Commander of the King's troops in East Hungary. Basta laid a siege to the Beszterce Fortress loyal to Fejedelem Bathori in February. The fortress defenders surrendered 2 weeks later. - Grand Vizier Hassan laid an unsuccessful siege to the Simontornya Fortress in Tolna County in April. - The Haiduk mercenaries captured Pasha Ali near Buda. - Prince Mercoeur died. The King named Austrian Count Hermann Rossworm as new Supreme Commander of the West Hungarian Army. - General Basta defeated Bathori on July 2 at Tovis in Also-Feher County. Bathori left Hungary and moved to Moravia. - Turkish Grand Vizier Hassan laid a siege to the Szekesfeherar Fortress with 70,000 men in August. The defenders were only 500 Germans and 300 Hungarians, led by a colonel, Italian Count Giovanni Isolano. Hassan captured the fortress in 17 days. - Princess Mathias and General Russworm captured the City of Pest on October 6 with 20,000 men. They laid a siege to the Capital, the Buda Fortress. Grand Vizier Hassan laid a siege to Pest on Oct 13 with 20,000 men. Hassan failed after 3 weeks. Prince Mathias also gave up the siege of Buda. - With no opposition in East Hungary, General Basta lowered himself to robbing and pillaging. The territory was hit by devastating famine and epidemics.


The East Hungarian National Assembly accepted I. Rudolf as their King. - Mozes Szekely, former general of Zsigmond Bathori, was nominated to be Fejedelem of East Hungary by the Sultan. Szekely united the Bathori loyal Hungarians and Szeklers in the Turkish held territories. He was joined by Pasha Bektas with a Turkish army. Mozes Szekely entered Erdely in April. Szekely captured Karansebes and Lugos fortresses. The Gyulafehervar fortress opened the door for Szekely. A Territorial Assembly declared Mozes Szekely as new Fejedelem. General Basta pulled back to Northern Hungary without a fight. Vlach Vajda of Havasu sent an army to help General Basta. During June all cities in Erdely (except Segesvar) accepted Mozes Szekely's rule. Vajda Radul of Havasu defeated an army of nobles supporting Szekely at Brasso on July 17. Radul's Vlach army also included local Szeklers and Saxons. Habsburg Loyalist Captain Lajos Rakoczi and his Haiduk mercenaries caught and massacred the escaping nobles near Vaskapu. General Basta started an even more brutal punishment of Erdely. A large number of Hungarian Barons and Citizens were systematically executed. Basta requested the Germanization of Erdely (Transylvania) from I. Rudolf. - General Rossworm laid a siege to Buda on Sept 17. The unsuccessful siege ended 2 months later. Rossworn captured the Hatvan Fortress on Nov 20. - Persian Shah Abbas re-captured Tebriz fron the Turks, which started an 8 year war between the Sultan and the Shah. - I. Ahmed was named new Sultan on Dec 23. He ruled until 1617. - Statistics: The savage Turks, Germans and Vlachs killed large populations, mostly in East Hungary during the last 15 years: 96% of Szabolcs, 42% os Szatmar, 68% of Zemplen, 89% of Borsod, 79% of Nyitra and 70% of Pozsony population was killed.


General Basta continued his brutal rule. During the National Assembly he captured and executed Hungarian and Haiduk leaders. Basta ordered the Saxons and Szeklers of Erdely to pay huge tributes to him. - Bathori loyalist Captain Istvan Bocskai requested help from the Sultan in his quest for the East Hungarian Throne. 2nd Vizier Mehmed Lalla agreed to support Bocskai with an army. This was the start of the "Bocskai Rebellion" against the Habsburg's rule. - General Basta was finally called back from Erdely. - The unpaid German mercenaries also left Erdely in August. The German mercenaries gave back Pest, Vac and Hatvan to the Turks without a fight in Sept. An army of Hungarians returning from exile was defeated by the Haiduks loyal to the Habsburgs near Temesvar on Sept 14. - 2nd Vizier Mehmed Lalla laid a siege to the important Esztergom Fortress on Sept 19. He gave up the siege 4 weeks later. - Istvan Bocskai settled into the Solyomko Fortress in Bihar County. Ciprian Concini, the King's Captain of Varad captured Bocskai's fortress, Szentjob on Oct 2. Concini laid a siege to the Kereki Fortress defended by Captain Pal Orvendy. A group of "Free Haiduks" joined the defenders and defeated Concini. The citizens of Locse rebelled and chased out the Habsburg loyalist Captain Marton Pethe and his army on Oct 10. Habsburg loyalist Captain Count Belgiojoso led his army against Bocskai. Bocskai mounted a surprise attack on the marching Belgiojoso army. The Haiduk troops of Belgiojoso immediately sided with the Hungarians and the united troops scattered the remaining Habsburg army on Oct 15. Begiojoso found refuge in Varad. Bocskai and the Haiduks entered Debrecen on Oct 16. Belgiojoso pulled back to Kassa, but the City refused to let him in. He escaped to Szepes. Fortresses Szendro, Putnok, Krasznahorka, Kallo and Kassa joined Bocskai during Oct. The Northern Hungarian semi-independent Mining Cities and 5 "Free Cities" joined Bocskai in Nov. Bocskai moved his headquarters to Kassa. The Haiduk army reached the Garam River. Many Hungarian nobles and peasants joined Bocskai's army. General Basta defeated a Haiduk army at Osgyan in Gomor County on Nov 17 and at Edeleny on Nov 28. Basta laid an unsuccessful siege to Kassa, and pulled back to Eperjes on Dec 6.


I. Rudolf called for the West Hungarian National Assembly, but nearly nobody showed up. - Bocskai's Colonel Laszlo Gyulaffy captured Szatmar on Jan 22. Bocskai and Moldovian Vajda Jeremiah agreed to an alliance. The Vajda gave significant military help to Bocskai in Erdely. The East Hungarian National Assembly elected Istan Bocskai as Fejedelem on Feb 21. He ruled until 1606. - I. Rudolf requested ex-Fejedelem Zsigmond Bathori to go against Bocskai, but he refused. Rudolf also organized the Saxons of Saxonia in South Erdely. Bocskai organized a large Haiduk army led by Colonel Ferenc Rhedei. Bocskai's Hungarian troops were led by General Balint Homonnai Drugeth. General Basta led his army against Bocskai in March, but he was defeated, and Bocskai's army advanced to the Ersekujvar-Leva line. - Basta moved to the Pozsony Fortress with 10,000 men on April 7. The Free Hungarian National Assembly elected Bocskai as Fejedelem on April 20. Nagyszombat Fortress near Pozsony joined Bocskai on May 5. The Haiduks of Bocskai attacked targets in Lower-Austria, Moravia and Silezia in May. Captain Gergely Nemeth laid a siege to the Sopron Fortress on June 6. General Basta relieved Sopron 22 days later. - Fejedelem Bocskai and Vajda Radul of Havasu agreed to an alliance on Aug 5. Bocskai started taking over the remaining areas in Rudolf's hand in Erdely. Kolozsvar joined him without a battle. Bocskai's General Homonnai laid a siege to the Ersekujvar Fortress on Aug 29. The German defenders led by Colonel Strein gave up after 7 weeks. After Bocskai captured Segesvar, the whole East Hungary / Transyvania was under his rule. - Bocskai named Zsigmond Rakoczi to be Governor. - Turkish troops captured Esztergom from I. Rudolf on Oct 3. - German Colonel Count Johann Tilly invaded West Hungary and retook the Kormend and Szombathely Fortresses in Vas County. Bocskai's Colonel Gergely Nemethy pulled back to Szigetvar. - Grand Vizier Mehmed Lalla declared Bocskai as King of Hungary, and presented him with a crown in Pest. - Bocskai rewarded his Haiduk supporters with nobility and property.


The Habsburgs and Bocskai agreed to a 6 month truce and continued peace talks. - Prince Mathias was elected in Vienna to replace the ailing I. Rudolf on the Habsburg Throne. - The Germans defending the Tokaj Fortress capitulated after a 1 year siege. - Both I. Rudolf and Bocskai accepted the results of the peace talks of Vienna in Aug. - The Hungarians, Habsburgs and Turks agreed to a 20-year peace treaty on Nov 11. - The German defenders of the Varad Fortress capitulated on Nov 22. - The new Hungarian National Assembly on Dec 23 declared: Freedom of religion, The Nador's (Governor) position was reinstated, No German or other foreign commanders were allowed, Established a King's and the Nador's Council, Erdely (Transylania) was rejoined with Hungary forever. - [Bocskai reached his 1st goal by successfully eliminating the Habsburg rule from Hungary and united all of non-Turkish ruled Hungary. Unfortunately the Habsburgs were very unhappy with this.] - Istvan Bocskai suddenly died on Dec 29. Poisoning by Habsburg supporters was suspected.


Chancellor Mihaly Kathay was accused with the poisoning. He was executed on Jan 12 by the Haiduks. - The Habsburgs declared their claim to the Hungarian Throne. - The East Hungarian National Assembly elected Zsigmond Rakoczi as new Fejedelem. He ruled until 1608. - Several City Fortresses declared their loyalty to I. Rudolf, while others refused entrance for the King's representatives. - I. Rudolf broke several points of the Vienna Peace Agreement and a new rebellion started to form with the leadership of the Haiduks. Pasha Ali of Buda agreed to provide military help to the rebels. By November the number of the rebel army by the Tisza River reached 16,000, mostly Haiduks. Based on the peace agreements the Haiduks wanted to elect Balint Homonnai as King. The Sultan also declared his support for Homonnai as King of Hungary. - Statistics: The total number of paid soldiers in the border fortresses were 6156 total. This included 1300 German Infantry, 400 German Cavalry, 1750 Hungarian Hussars, 594 River Navy, 2005 Hungarian Infantry and 107 Artillerymen.


The Hungarian National Assembly requested that I. Rudolf shall abide by the 1606 peace treaties. - The Haiduks agreed to support Gabor Bathory as new Fejedelem. Zsigmond Rakoczi renounced his Fejedelem title. The East Hungarian National Assembly elected Gabor Bathori as new Fejedelem on March 7. He ruled until 1613. - Prince Mathias and Balint Homonnai confirmed the privileges of the Haiduks and allowed the to re-settle in Szabolcs and Szatmar counties. 6000 Haiduks joined Mathias' army and 3000 joined Gabor Bathori's army. - A rebellion was started against I. Rudolf. Their camp was in Znaim in Moravia. Prince Mathias decided to join the rebels with his 20,000 men army (consisted of 12,000 Hungarians, 4000 Austrians and 4000 Moravians). - Vajda Serban Radul of Havasu pledged his allegiance to Gabor Bathori. - I. Rudolf renounced his Hungarian King title to the benefit of Prince Mathias. - Vajda Constantin Movila of Moldova pledged his allegiance to Gabor Bathori on July 18. - Prince Mathias and Gabor Bathori formed an alliance of the 2 Hungarian half countries. Prince Mathias was crowned as II. Matyas, King of Hungary on Nov 19. He ruled until 1619.


Fejedelem Gabor Bathori allowed Vlachs to settle in Erdely (Transylvania) on June 9.


Istvan Kendi led an unsuccessful assasination attempt against Fejedelem Gabor Bathori. Several Saxons and Vlachs were also involved in the conspiracy. - Bathori allowed Haiduks to settle in Torda County. - Peace talks between the King and the Fejedelem broke down. - Bathori punished the Saxon conspirators in Szeben by confiscating their property. - Bathori organized an army to punish the Vlach conspirators escaped to Havasu on Dec 26.


Bathori reahed the Tergovistyen Fortress in Havasu. Vajda Serban Radu of Havasu abandoned his country and escaped to Moldovia in January. Bathori declared himself Vajda of Havasu. - Emperor II. Rudolf renounced his right to the Czech (Moravian) Throne. King II. Matyas (Rudolf's brother) was named new King of Moravia on March 24. - The Saxons in Brasso started to conspire with the Havasu Vlachs against Bathori. - II. Matyas' Captain Baron Zsigmond Forgach organized an army and left Kassa in a campaign against Bathori on June 29. Haiduk General Andras Nagy joined the Forgach army with his troops. Vajda Serban Radu also entered Erdely with his army from Havasu on July 7. Serban Radu defeated Bathori's army at Brasso. Kolozsvar capitulated to Forgach on July 25. Forgach and Radu combined their army, but their siege of Szeben in August was unsuccessful. Andras Nagy and his Haiduk troops swithed sides and joined Bathori. The Haiduk army re-took Kolozsvar on Aug 31. Pasha Ome of Bosnia and Pasha Zulfikar of Temesvar arrived to Erdely with their armies to help Bathori. Baron Forgach and Vajda Radu escaped to Havasu on Sept 16. - Bathori levied extra taxes on the Saxon supporters of Forgach and Radu.


Emperor II. Rudolf died. II. Matyas was named new German-Roman Emperor. - The Barcasag, the Brasso area rebelled against Fejedelem Gabor Bathori. For 2 fortresses and 15,000 gold the Sultan agreed to support Andras Ghyczy to replace Bathori as Fejedelem. Ghyczy had a 2000 men Vlach army from Havasu. Haiduk General Andras Nagy became allied with Ghyczy and attempted to assassinate Bathory on Aug 8. Nagy was caught and beheaded. - Bathori's top man and critic, Gabor Bethlen was affraid of his life and took refuge with the Turks. - Bathori defeated a rebel army led by Chief Judge Mihaly Weiss near Brasso on Oct 14. The Judge died in the battle. The Brasso Fortress stayed in rebel hands. A large number of rebels outside the city were executed.


Gabor Bethlen submitted his claim to be Fejedelem of East Hungary to Sultan I. Ahmed. The Sultan gave a Turkish army to Bethlen to help him onto the Fejedelem Throne. - King II. Matyas and Fejedelem Gabor Bathori agreed to a peace treaty and the alliance against the Turks. - Pasha Ogli and Vajda Radu Mihnea of Havasu entered the Barcasag to help Bethlen to the Throne on Sept 2. Moldovian Vajda II. Stephan Tomsa joined them with his army 8 days later. Gabor Bethlen called upon the Erdelyians to abandon Bathori and support him as the new Fejedelem. An additional Turkish army led by Pasha Skender entered Erdely on Sept 24. On the next day the army of Tatar Khan Sahin Giraj also arrived to the Barcasag. [The Tatars were the descendents of Ghengis Khan's Mongolians, who originally settled at the North side of the Black Sea a formed the Khanate of Crimea. They often allied themselves with the Turks.] - Bathori seeing the overwhelming enemy forces pulled back to Kolozsvar and to Varad. - The East Hungarian National Assembly elected Gabor Bethlen as new Fejedelem on Oct 23. He ruled until 1629. - Anras Ghyczy's followers assassinated Bathori in Varad on Oct 27. - The Turkish troops left Hungary except for a 6000 men guards.


New Fejedelem Gabor Bethlen restored the rights and privileges of the Saxons taken by Bathori. - The killers of Bathori were tried and executed on March 3. - Bethlen and II. Matyas completed several peace talks.


Noble Gyorgy Homonnai offered II. Matyas his allegiance if Matyas helped him to be the Fejedelem. - Istvan Kendi started recruiting Haiduks to suport Homonnai. Gabor Bethlen started recruiting his defeder army. - II. Matyas and Bethlen finally agreed to a peace treaty and an anti-Turk alliance. - King II. Matyas and Sultan I. Ahmed renewed their peace agreement of 1606 for 20 more years.


As agreed in exchange for the Turkish help, Bethlen gave th Lippa Fortress to the Turks on June 14. - Gyorgy Homonnai's invading army was defeated by Lukacs Nagy's army in a 2-day battle at Konyar in Bihar County on June 11. Homonnai's army was defeated again at Des in Doboka County on Nov 4. Gabor Bethlen organized a counter attack in Upper-Hungary. Fejedelem Bethlen and Zsigmond Forgach, Supreme Commander of the Upper Hungarian army agreed to a truce on Dec 31.


Gabor Bethlen and Polish King III Sigmund agreed to an anti-Turkish alliance. - Upon request of the Sultan, Bethlen's army joined Pasha Skender in a military campaign into Moldovia. They put Radu Mihnea into power in Moldovia. Bethlen and Mihnea agreed to an alliance. - I. Mustafa became the new Sultan of Turkey. He ruled until 1618.


II. Osman became the new Sultan, he ruled until 1622. - The Czechs rebelled against the Habsburg rule, and threw out the Emperor's representatives from a tower window on May 23. This marked the beginning of the "30 Year War", mostly between the Habsburgs and Czechs.


The Hungarian representatives' peace negotiations between the Habsburgs and Czechs failed. - King II Matyas died. Another Habsburg, II. Ferdinand became new King in March. He ruled until 1637. - II. Ferdinand accepted Gabor Bethlen as Fejedelem of East Hungary. - The West Hungarian National Assembly refused to join Ferdinand against the Czechs. The Czechs led by Count Matej Thurn surrounded Vienna on June 5. - The West Hungarian nobles considered to join the Czechs against the Habsburgs. - Bethlen Fejedelem of East Hungary also agreed with Turkish Grand Vizier Mehmed Damad that they join the anti-Habsburg coalition. - II. Ferdinand was elected to be German-Roman Emperor by the German National Assembly on Aug 23. - The Czechs refused to accept Ferdinand, and they selected Prince-Elector V. Frederick of Pfalz to be Czech King on Aug 26. - Gabor Bethlen started to march with his army against II. Ferdinand. Upper Hungarian Baron Gyorgy Rakoczi joined Bethlen on Sept 6. Bethlen and Rakoczi called upon all Hungarians to join them against the Habsburgs. The Partial National Assembly elected Gyorgy Rakoczi to be Supreme Commander of Upper Hungary on Sept 21. - II. Ferdinand's fortresses Locse, Ersekujvar and Nagyszombat capitulated and joined Bethlen. - Bethlen sent a 10,000 men cavalry led by Ferenc Rhedey to help the Czechs on Oct 11. - After a siege the Pozsony Fortress surrendered to Bethlen on Oct 14. Nador Zsigmond Forgach and Crown Guard Peter Revay joined Fejedelem Bethlen. The ancient Hungarian Saint Crown was given to Bethlen. - The 3-day Battle of Ulrichskirchen between the Habsburg Count Buquoi and the united Czech-Moravian-Hungarian army ended in a draw on Oct 26. A 2nd battle at Kopcseny in Moson County also resulted in a draw on Nov 9. - Habsburg loyalist Gyorgy Homonnai entered Hungary with 8000 men with Polish help on Nov 21. Homonnai's army defeated Rakoczi's army in Zemplen County. - The Czech and Hungarian armies laid a siege to Vienna on Nov 24. - Bethlen returned with a part of his army to fight Homonnai. Captain Miklos Abafy of Tokaj destoyed Homonnai's army at Szeben in Saros County on Dec 4. Homonnai escaped to Poland. - The defenders of the Sopron Fortress joined Bethlen.


II. Ferdinand and Fejedelem Bethlen agreed to a truce on Jan 16. - Bethlen sent an army led by Count Imre Thurzo to Prague to help Czech King Frederick. - While Gabor Bethlen was in the Pozsony area, his brother Istvan Bethlen was governing East Hungary. - Gabor Bethlen representing both sides of Hungary and Frederick Czech King formed and alliance, including a mutual defense against the Habsburgs and the Turks. - The Hungarian National Assembly dethroned the Habsburgs and elected Gabor Bethlen as King of Hungary on Aug 25. - Bethlen continued the war against the Habsburgs and he attacked and captured the Deutsch-Altenburg Fortress on Sept 28. Bethlen's other army lost a battle at Lakompak in Sopron County. Bethlen laid a siege to Hainburg and Koszeg in Oct. He captured Koszeg 6 weeks later. - Ferdinand's General Dampierre laid an unsuccessful siege to the Pozsony Fortress on Oct 8. The General died in the battle. - Hungarian Chancellar Simon Pechi was sent to help the Czechs with a 3000 men cavalry on Oct 28. - While the Hungarian forces were away, Pasha Mehmed Karakas attacked and captured the Vac Fortress on Nov 4. - II. Ferdinand and his Imperial army defeated the Czechs at Prague on Nov 8. - Bethlen's Captain David Petnehazy defeated an invading imperial army at Magyarovar in Moson County on Dec 2.


Peace talks between Fejedelem Gabor Bethlen and Emperor II. Ferdinand were unsuccessful. Emperor II. Ferdinand started his attack. He captured Pozsony on May 6, Nyitra on May 25, Koszeg on May 27 and laid a siege to Ersekujvar. Bethlen soundly destroyed the Emperors army at Ersekujvar. The Emperor's General Bouquoi and traitor Nador Zsigmond Forgah died in the battle. Bethlen laid an unsuccessful 4-week siege to Pozsony. - II. Ferdinand and Gabor Bethlen signed a peace treaty on Dec 31. Bethlen renounced his King title, he returned the Saint Crown and gave up most of West Hungary. Bethlen remained a Fejedelem, kept 7 Upper-Hungarian Counties, and recived 50,000 gold per year from the Emperor.


The Yanissaries in Istambul rebelled, overthrew Sultan II. Osman, and reinstated I. Mustafa, who was ousted in 1618. Mustafa ruled only until 1623. - The East Hungarian National Assembly established new laws limiting the Jewish corruptions, usurious activity and extortions.


Gabor Bethlen was planning a new military campaign against the Habsburgs. He agreed to an alliance with Prince Cerestely of Braunscweig and with the Count of Jagerndorf in May. He also contacted Frederick, ex-King of the Czechs. The Emperor's General Tilly defeated Bethlen's German allies, the Braunschweig and Jagerndorf armies at Stadtlohn in Westphalia on Aug 6. Bethled led his 10,000 men army against II. Ferdinand on Aug 15. Bethlen destroyed the Emperor's army at Nagyszombat on Oct 17. Bethlen laid a siege to the Hodonin Fortress in Moravia. On Nov 20 Bethlen and Ferdinand agreed to a peace treaty, which allowed Bethlen to keep the counties he captured. - IV. Murad was named new Sultan in Istambul. He ruled until 1640.


Bethlen and Ferdinand renewed the peace treaty on May 8. - The Polish nobles named Gabor Bethlen as successor to the Polish Throne after the death of King III. Sigmund.


Fejedelem Gabor Bethlen was invited into a coalition of England, France, Holland and Venice against the Habsburgs. - German-Roman Emperor II. Ferdinand and Turkish Sultan IV. Murad renewed the 1606 Peace Treaty between the 2 empires. This stopped the Turkish support of Bethlen against the Habsburgs. - Denmark joined the anti-Habsburg coalition.


Fejedelem Gabor Bethlen married Katalin, sister of the Prince-Elector of Brandenburg on March 2. - Bethlen started his 3rd military campaign with 20,000 men against Ferdinand on Aug 25. - The Emperor's General Count Albrecht Wallenstein defeated Ernst Mansfeild's anti-Habsburg army on Sept 2. Ernst Mansfeld escaped to Hungary, Wallenstein followed him with the army. Bethlen called the Upper-Hungarians to help him. In alliance with Bethlen, Pasha Murteza of Buda laid an unsuccessful siege to the Nograd Fortress in the Emperor's hand. The remaining army of Mansfeld joined with Bethlen's army at Szecseny in Nograd County on Oct 2. Pasha Murteza captured Damasd in Hont County on Oct 18. - Pestilence hit Wallenberg's army and they pulled out of Hungary on Dec 13 without a fight.


Fejedelem Gabor Bethlen and II. Ferdinand signed a peace treaty on May 19.


Gabor Bethlen and Vajda Miron Movila of Moldovia agrred to an alliance. - Swedish King Adolf Gustav invaded Poland. Adolf Gustav, Brother-in-law of Bethlen, asked Bethlen for an alliance. Sultan IV Murad opposed the alliance.


Fejedelem Gabor Bethlen died on Nov 15. His wife, Katalin Brandenburg became the new Fejedelem, she ruled until 1630. - Upon Habsburg pressure Katalin agreed to return 7 Upper-Hungarian Counties to II. Ferdinand.


The Upper-Hungarian Haiduks opposed the Habsburg King's taking over the 7 counties. The Szeklers joined the opposition. The Haiduks in Erdely and some of the Szeklers left Fejedelem Katalin's service. The Szekler General, David Zolyomi and Captain Istvan Bethlen Jr joined the Haiduks' camp near Debrecen. - The Haiduks defeated the King's army at Boszormeny on Sept 8 and the EWrdely Haiduks defeated another army of the King at Tokaj on Sept 9. Zolyomi and Bethlen asked Gyorgy Rakoczi to be the new Fejedelem, to which he agreed and joined them. During the National Assembly Katalin renounced her Fejedelem title and the Assembly elected Istvan Bethlen to be new Fejedelem on Sept 28. Istvan Bethlen Jr (related to the Fejedelem-elect), gave the Varad Fortress to Gyorgy Rakoczi and his Haiduks supporters. To avoid civil war, Bethlen and Rakoczi agreed to have the Assembly elect the Fejedelem from the two of them. Katalin gave support to Rakoczi. The Sultan also gave his support to Rakoczi. The East Hungarian National Assembly elected Gyorgy Rakoczi as new Fejedelem on Dec 1. He ruled until his death in 1648.


Habsburg loyalist Count Miklos Esterhazy led his army to overthrow Fejedelem Rakoczi. Rakoczi's generals David Zolyom and Istvan Bethlen Jr with their Hungarian-Haiduk army defeated Esterhazy at Rakamaz in Szabolcs County on March 15. - Rakoczi and II. Ferdinand agreed to a peace treaty on April 3. - Rakoczi gave noble ranks to a number of his supporters, including the Haiduks. Most were settled in Bihar County. - The peasants rebelled against the pillage of soldiers in Borsog County in July. The rebels had 8000 men, led by Peter Csaszar. Chief Captain Janos Bornemissza of Upper Hungary negotiated a peaceful end to the peasant rebellion on Aug 17.


Some of the peasants continued their rebellion. Their leader, Peter Csaszar was captured and executed by Baron Miklos Forgach on March 4. Gyorgy Rakoczi and David Zolyomi scattered the remaining peasant rebels in Szabolcs County on April 10.


Fejedelem I. Gyorgy Rakoczi captured and tried David Zolyomi and 7 others for disloyalty. Their conspirator Mozes Szekely escaped to Turkey.


The Sultan ordered Rakoczi to militarily assist the Turkish campaign against Poland. Rakoczi notified III. Sigmund Polish King of the planned Turkish attack and promised that the Hungarians will not participate. - The German Imperial Army won a significant battle against the united Protestant Army at Nordlingen in Bavaria on Sept 5. Emperor II. Ferdinand executed General Count Albrecht Wallenstein.


Istvan Bethlen ex-Fejedelem went to the Sultan to ask his help to regain the throne of East Hungary.


Rakoczi's request that the Sultan deny help to the rebelling Istvan Bethlen failed. The Turkish troops of Istvan Bethlen reached Gyula on Oct 1. Rakoczi's army defeated Bethlen and the invading Turks at Szalonta in Bihar County on Oct 6. Rakoczi and Bethlen agreed to a peace treaty. The Turks marched out, Bethlen renounced his claim to the throne and Rakoczi gave Bethlen's confiscated property back. - III. Ferdinand, son of II. Ferdinand was named new King of the Czech Land and West Hungary.


Sultan IV. Murad declared his support for I. Gyorgy Rakoczi. - The mostly German population of the City of Brasso rebelled against Rakoczi's rule. The National Assembly punished Brasso with a 60,000 gold tax. - War broke out between Vajda Lupu of Moldovia and Vajda Mate Basarab of Havasu on Oct 22. Rakoczi sent an army led by Janos Kemeny to restore peace, which he accomplished by Dec 7.


Fejedelem I. Gyorgy Rakoczi's representatives discussed French-Hungarian alliance with Cardinal Richelieu in Paris in April. French King XIII. Louie sent his ambassador to Rakoczi to complete the alliance.


Vajda Lupu of Moldovia invaded Havasu with Turkish help. Rakoczi sent Gyorgy Kapronczai with an army to help Vajda Mate Basarab of Havasu. The Hungarian-Havasu alliance defeated Vajda Lupu and his Turkish help in a decisive battle at Bucuresti.


Sultan I. Ibrahim stepped on the Throne in Istambul. He ruled until 1648. - Rakoczi and Polish King III. Sigmund formed an anti-Turkish alliance on May 8. - Portugal rebelled against the Habsburgs and elected their own King, Prince John Braganza.


German-Roman Emperor III. Ferdinand and Turkish Sultan I. Ibrahim agreed to a 20 year peace treaty. - Count Leonhard Torstensson, General of the Swedish army warring in German territories asked Rakoczi for alliance.


Fejedelem Gyorgy Rakoczi's son, also Gyorgy, married Zsofia Bathori on Feb 3. - Christina, Queen of Sweden joined the anti-Habsburg alliance of XIII. Louie and Rakoczi on April 26. Rakoczi received 150,000 gold yearly aid. The National assembly voted for the military campaign against the Habsburgs.


The Sultan had his Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa executed and named Pasha Mehmed as new Grand Vizier. Mehmed refused to send the Turkish army promised by Mustafa to help Rakoczi against the Habsburgs. - Rakoczi left Gyulafehervar with 15,000 men on Feb 2. Troops sent from Moldovia and Havasu joined Rakoczi later in February. - Rakoczi asked the whole Hungarian Nation to join him against the Habsburgs and reunite as one Hungarian Kingdom. - Swedish-Danish war broke out on Feb 10, so the Swedes did not send any help. - All Upper-Hungarian cities and fortresses allied with Rakoczi and by April Rakoczi's army reached the Vag Valley. - One of Rakoczi's generals, Gyorgy Kapronczai lost a battle at Galgoc in Nyitra County. The General died in the battle. The Habsburg army led by Count Miklos Esterhazy captured the Leva, Fulek and Szendro fortresses by April 30. Rakoczi pulled back to Sarospatak. Peace talks broke down. The Habsburg armies pillaged Northern Hungary. - Nador Esterhazy laid a siege to the Kassa Fortress. Rakoczi's General Janos Kemeny's relief army defeated Esterhazi at Kassa on June 14. Kemeny's army defeated Esterhazy again at Somos in Abauj County. Fortresses Szalanc, Ungvar and Jeszeno joined Rakoczi's side. In the Vag Valley, Turoc and Nyitra areas rebelling Hungarian peasants defeated the local Habsburg forces in July. The Murany Fortress in Gomor County capitulated to the Habsburgs on Aug 5. Habsburg General Johann Gotz advanced into Borsod County. Rakoczi pulled back to Szabolcs County in Sept. Rebellion and deserters decimated Gotz's army, so he pulled back West and Rakoczi followed them in Oct. General Gotz initiated an unsuccessful attack into Gomor County in Nov. He pulled back to Nyitra County and finally he left Hungary in Dec. Rakoczi set up his Winter Camp in Nograd County.


Peace talks with the Habsburgs were unsuccessful. Fejedelem Zsigmond Rakoczi and his General Janos Kemeny started a new campaign against the Habsburgs in April. They Captured the Nagyszombat Fortress on May 28. Peace talks in June were unsuccessful. Rakoczi and Kemeny entered Moravia with 14,000 Hungarian troops and united with Swedish General Torstensson's army at Brunn. After a peace agreement was reached in August, Rakoczi pulled back to Hungary. - As part of the agreement the country stayed separated with significant territorial gains for Rakoczi.


War broke out between the Sultan and the Venetians for the ownership of the Crete Island. The war lasted 23 years.


IV. Ferdinand, son of III. Ferdinand was crowned new King of West Hungary on June 16.


IV. Mehmed became new Sultan in Istambul on Aug 8. He ruled until 1687. - Fejedelem I. Gyorgy Rakoczi died on Oct 11. His oldest son, II. Gyorgy Rakoczi became new Fejedelem. - XIV. Louie French King, Christina Swedish Queen and Emperor III. Ferdinand signed the Vestphalian Peace Agreement ending the "30 Year War" on Oct 24. - The Polish National Assembly elected Janus Casimir Vasa as new King of Poland on Nov 17.


King I. Charles was executed in London and the Republic was declared on Jan 30. - Fejedelem II. Gyorgy Rakoczi worked on re-establishing and confirming the alliances his father made.


Sultan IV. Mehmed and Emperor III. Ferdinand renewed their peace treaty for 20 years.


The Cossaks living within Poland's border organized a rebellion. their leader Bogdan Hmelnickij offered the Polish Crown to Rakoczi. - Fejedelem II. Gyorgy Rakoczi married Henrietta Pfalz, daugter of former Czech King Frederick Pfalz, on June 26. Henrietta died 2 moths later - The Turks from Kanizsa attacked and captured the Kiskomar Fortress in Somogy County. Ban Miklos Zrinyi of Horvatorszag re-captured the Fortress a few days later. - Murad Pasha of Buda led a large Turkish army to the Kiskomar area in September. Habsburg General Count Johann Puchaim led his army to Kiskomar to confront the Pasha. The Pasha left without a fight. - III. Ferdinand requested that Nador Count Pal Palffy and his followers start an attack against East Hungary. The nobles refused and Nador Palffy offered their alliance to Rakoczi against the Habsburgs.


Fejedelem II. Zsigmond Rakoczi died on Feb 4. His son, Gyorgy Rakoczi was elected new Fejedelem. - III. Ferdinand's army soundly defeated the Turks at Vezekeny in Bars County on Aug 25.


Vajda Lupu Vasile of Moldovia asked the Sultan's help to invade East Hungary. Rakoczi's army in alliance with Havasu Vajda Mate Basarab's army attacked Moldovia on March 23. The Moldovian Vajda was defeated several times he was chased out of the country. Rakoczi named Stephan Gheorghe as new Vajda of Moldovia. - Croatian peasants rebelled in Varasd County under the leadership of Nikola Babich. Count Miklos Zrinyi, Ban of Horvatorszag was seeking a peaceful solution with King III. Ferdinand. However the King sent Count Imre Erdody and his noble army to defeat the rebellion. The rebels defeated Erdody in Dec. The border guards of Zagrab County joined the rebellion.


The Ukrainians in the Polish Kingdom rebelled and joined Russia on Jan 8. - Count Erdody lost the 2nd battle against the rebels in Varasd in January. After several attempts Ban Miklos Zrinyi was unable to negotiate peace with the rebels.


The Khan of the Crimean Khanate requested yearly taxes from East Hungary. The Fejedelem of course, refused to comply. - Statistics: The total number of defenders of the border fortresses in West Hungary were 10,385. - Swedish King X. Charles landed in Poland with 30,000 men. - A rebellion broke out in Havasu in June against Vajda Constantin Serban. Rakoczi sent his General Janos Kemeny into Havasu. Kemeny defeated the rebels at Soplea on June 26. - II. Ferdinand's son, I. Lipot was crowned new King of West Hungary.


Rakoczi joined the anti-Polish alliance of the Swedish King X. Charles, Cossack Bogdan Hmelnickij, Stefan Gheorghe Moldovian and Constantin Serban Havasu Vajdas. - Count Imre Erdody captured Nikola Babich, leader of the Croatian peasant rebellion.


The anti-Polish alliance started their campaign against Poland. General Janos Kemeny's army consisted of 15,000 men from Erdely, 3000 men from Havasu and 3000 men from Moldovia. In Poland 20,000 Cossaks joined them. - German-Roman Emperor III. Ferdinand died on April 2. His son I. Lipot became the new Emperor. - Rakoczi and the Swedish army captured Warsaw on June 9. A 10,000 men Polish army broke into Upper Hungary and pillaged the Munkacs, Beregszasz, Szatmar and Visk areas in Maramaros County. The Swedish army returned home in June and the Cossaks left in July. Gyorgy Rakoczy agreed to a peace treaty consisting of all armies shall return home and the 2 countries shall restore the original border. However the Polish nobles tricked the Hungarians and sent them to be captured by the Tatar army. The Tatars took them as slaves to Crimea. Most of them died, some of them were freed after heavy ransom payments. The Tatars invaded East Hungary on Aug 15, and pillaged the Szeklers Land. - Fejedelem II. Gyorgy Rakoczi was blamed for the disasterous Polish Campaign and the National Assembly forced him to resign on Oct 27. The Assembly elected Ferenc Rhedey (brother-in-law of Gabor Betlen) to be new Fejedelem.


The new East Hungarian National Assembly restored II. Gyorgy Rakoczi as Fejedelem on Jan 9. - The Turks defeated Vajda Constantin Serban of Havasu on Jan 29. He escaped to Hungary with his followers. - Ban Miklos Zrinyi of Horvatorszag still struggled with the peasant rebellion. - The Turks defeated Vajda Stefan Gheorghe of Moldovia on March 13. He escaped to Hungary with his followers. - Turkish Grand Vizier Mehmed Koprulu left Istambul with a large army against East Hungary on May 3. Gyorgy Rakoczi destroyed a smaller invading Turkish army led by Pasha Ahmed Seidi on Jun 26. Koprulu reached Hungary and captured the Jeno Fortress in Zarand County. In alliance with the Turks the Tatars invaded East Hungary on Sept 5. They pillaged and murdered in Gyulafehervar, Nagyenyed, Torda, Kolozsvar, Marosvasarhely and Bihar County. They butchered 100,000 people in 2 weeks and took many more as slaves. Grand Vizier Koprulu named Akos Barcsay as new Fejedelem of East Hungary on Sept 14. 6 weeks later the Turks left Hungary.


During the East Hungarian National Assembly the 2 Fejedelems' followers compromised to avoid a civil war. II. Gyorgy Rakoczi renounced his claim to the throne. - To end the ongoing peasant rebellion in Horvatorszag Ban Miklos Zrinyi finally decided to use force and recruited a noble's army. His army defeated the rebels and ended the 6-year long rebellion. - Rakoczi's General Kemeny and some of his men were released by the Crimean Tatars and arrived to Erdely on Aug 26. The National Assembly restored II. Gyorgy Rakoczi as Fejedelem on Sep 27. - Rakoczi in alliance with Vajda Mihnea of Havasu overthrew Turkish ally Vajda Ghica Gheorghe of Moldovia. They reinstated Constantin Serban as Vajda of Moldovia on Oct 4. - Gyorgy Rakoczi asked the West Hungarian nobles for help while Akos Barcsai asked the Turkish Sultan for help. - The Turkish Pasha of Silistria invaded Moldovia and defeated Vajda Mihnea on Nov 17. Ahmed Seidi, Pasha of Buda with 17,000 men defeated Rakoczi's much smaller army at Zajkany in Hunyad County on Nov 22 and at Torda on Nov 30. - Crimean Tatar Khan Galga invaded Havasu and chased away Vajda Constantin Serban in Nov. - A National Assembly was called by Akos Barcsai, but his followers were caight by Rakoczi's followers. Barcsai escaped to Szeben on Dec 17.


II. Gyorgy Rakoczi laid a siege to Szeben on Jan 7. - Pasha Ali led a new 25,000 men army against East Hungary on April 6. The Pasha pillaged and destroyed the Haiduks territory near Debrecen. - Rakoczi gave up the Szeben siege and led his army against invading Pasha Ahmed Seidi on May 14. Ahmed Seidi defeated Rakoczi at Szaszfenes in Kolozs County on May 22. Rakoczi died of his battle injuries on June 7. Akos Barcsai started to take over Erdely with his army and joined Pasha Ahmed Seidi's army. However Fejedelem Akos Barcsa was imprisoned by Pasha Seidi. Pasha Ali laid a siege to the Varad fortress with 50,000 men. The number of the defenders was only 850, but they held on to the fortress for 45 days. - Akos Barcsai was released after a huge ransom was paid to the Turks. - Rakoczi's followers regroupped in Kozep-Szolnok County, now under the leadership of Janos Kemeny. Kemeny's army defeated the Gaspar Barcsa (brother of the Fejedelem) army attacking him. Kemeny, who was a Szekler, organized the Szeklers of Szekelyfold to rebel against Akos Barcsai in Nov. Barcsai and Kemeny agreed to a truce and they called a National Assembly together. Barcsai renounced his claim to the Throne on Dec 31.


Tha Assembly elected Janos Kemeny as new Fejedelem on Jan 1. - Kemeny severed East Hungary's ties with the Turks and pledged allegiance to German-Roman Emperor I. Lipot. The Emperor agreed to provide help in exchange for 3 border fortresses. - Pasha Ali entered East Hungary with his main army on June 28. - The Emperor's army led by General Count Raimondo Montecuccoli reached Komarom. Fejedelem Kemeny started to pull his army North. The defenseless Southern fortresses and territories started to surrender to the advancing Pasha Ali in August. - Kemeny's army united with the Emperor's army in Szatmer County on Aug 30. - Pasha Ali selected Mihaly Apafi as new Fejedelem on Sep 14. Apafi ruled until 1690. Kemeny's and Montecuccoli's united army reached Kolozsvar on Sep 15. After the Turks promised that their army will leave East Hungary, Montecuccoli left with the Emperor's army without a fight on Sept 18. Ali Pasha and the Turks left in December. The Upper-Hungarian peasants rebelled against Montecuccoli's pillaging army.


Peace talks between Mihaly Apafi and Janos Kemeny were unsuccessful. Bey Mehmed Kucsuk came to the help of Apafi and defeated Kemeny's army at Nagyszollos. Kemeny died in the battle. - The National Assembly ordered the execution of 16 nobles loyal to Kemeny on March 10. Mihaly Apafi and Mehmed Kucsuk laid a 2-month unsuccessful siege to Kolozsvar, which was held by Kemeny's loyalists and Austrians. The Emperor's and the Sultan's representatives agreed to a truce on June 15. Bey Mehmed Kucsuk stayed with his army robbing, pillaging. The Southern part of the country up to the Kolozsvar line stayed under direct Turkish rule.


Grand Vizier Ahmed Koprulu left Drinapoly with a large 120,000 men army against Emperor I. Lipot on April 12. He reached Buda on June 28. The Turks destroyed the Emperor's army at Parkany in Esztergom County on Aug 7. Bey Mehmed Kucsuk, after a year of destruction in East Hungary, left to join the forces of Koprulu on Aug 12. A 6000 men Turk army laid an unsuccessful siege to Uj-Zrinyivar on Aug 13. Koprulu laid a siege to the Ersekujvar Fortress on Aug 16. Count Adam Forgach defended with 3500 men against 120,000. Forgach surrendered after a 39-day siege. Nador Count Ferenc Wesselenyi declared a countywide uprising to recruite armies on Aug 12. The Emperor's General Montecuccoli settled at Pozsony with 15,000 men. He was concerned with protecting Vienna only. Tatar forces allied with the Turks invaded Moravia on Sep 2. East Hungarian Fejedelem Mihaly Apafi reluctantly, after several orders from Ahmed Korpulu to join the attack by his side, left Radnot to join up. Apafi requested the West Hungarians to allow the Turks to pass through against the Habsburgs. - Count Peter Zrinyi defeated a smaller Turkish army at Karolyvaros on Oct 11. Pasha Hussein captured the Nyitra Fortress on Oct 18. Grand Vizier Koprulu pulled back to his Winter camp to Nandorfehervar on Oct 28, but most of his troops remained to continue the attacks. - Leva and Nograd fortresses capitulated to the Turks in Nov. Small German armies and a French army led by Count Coligny-Savigny arrived to Hungary in Nov. - Ban Miklos Zrinyi defeated and scattered Turkish and Tatar armies invading the Murakoz area on Nov 27. Fejedelem Mihaly Apafi pulled back to Gyulafehervar without joining the war at either side.


Count Miklos Zrinyi, Count Adam Batthyany with Hungarian troops and Count Julius Hohenlohe, Count Walter Leslie with German troops united in Somogy County and launched an attack behind the main Turk forces on Jan 21. The allies led by Zrinyi took the Pecs Fortress on Jan 29. Grand Vizier Koprulu quickly tried to pull his forces the fight Zrinyi and his allies. The allies burned the Turks' supply bridge on the River Drava on Aug 2 and advanced 240 km deep Eastward into Turkish territory by Feb 9. They turned North and captured Segesd on Feb 12. The allies laid a siege to the most important fortress in the area, Kanizsa, on April 28. - General Count Louis de Souches re-captured Nyitra on May 7. - Grand Vizier Kopulu left Nandorfehervar with a 40,000 men army to renew his attack on May 8. He crossed the Drava on their rebuilt bridge at Eszek on May 14. Kopulu relieved the Kanizsa Fortress from the siege on June 2 and laid a siege to Uj-Zrinyivar on June 8. The Emperor's Count Montecuccoli advanced to Uj-Zrinyivar on June 15, but did not engage the Turks. Against Zrinyi's wish, the Habsburgs surrendered Uj-Zrinyivar to the Turks on June 30. Kopulu ordered Uj-Zrinyivar and Kiskomar to be blown up. French General Souches defeated the Pasha of Ersekujvar at Leva on July 19. General Montecuccoli with the allied army won a decisive victory over Koprulu's main army at Szentgotthard in Vas County on Aug 1. Despite the huge win, the Turks and Habsburgs agreed to a quick peace treaty (called the Vasvar Treaty) giving large territories to the Turks on Aug 10. The Hungarians were shocked and infuriated with the peace agreement. The Hungarian nobles started anti-Habsburg alliance talks with Count Coligny-Savigny French General. - The best Hungarian General, Count Miklos Zrinyi was killed by a wild boar during hunting on Nov 18.


Nador Count Ferenc Wesselenyi protested against the Vasvar Treaty. The Habsburgs and Turks ratifed the Treaty.


The former Fejedelem Rakoczi's son, I. Ferenc Rakoczi married Ilona, daughter of Count Peter Zrinyi on March 1. The marriage connected the 2 largest anti-Habsburg families in Hungary and their followers made a political alliance. Nador Count Ferenc Wesselenyi joined the alliance in April. Chief Justice Count Ferenc Nadasdy joined the alliance in July. Fejedelem Apafi also indicated his willingness to join.


Nador Wesselenyi died on March 27. Judge Balint Szente betrayed anti-Habsburg alliance to the Emperor in May. - The Ambassador of Fejedelem Mihaly Apafi unsuccessfully asked the Sultan's help to support the alliance agains the Habsburgs. A translater named Panajotti also betrayed the Hungarians and forwarded their plans to the Habsburgs.


German-Roman Emperor I. Lipot and French King XIV. Louie agreed to an alliance to take over and split the Spanish Kingdom between them. - The Hungarian anti-Habsburg nobles alliance was still seeking to include Fejedelem Apafi.


Leaders of the Protestant Church joined I. Ferenc Rakoczi's anti-Habsburg alliance. Fejedelem Mihaly Apafi asked the Sultan for his permission to join the anti-Habsburg alliance. The Sultan refused [He preferred a divided Hungary].


The Habsburgs decided to destroy the Alliance. I. Ferenc Rakoczi caught the Habsburg's Captain Count Rudiger Starhemberg on April 10 and with that he started the Hungarian uprising. Rakoczi laid a siege to the Tokaj Fortress with 6000 men. The Upper-Hungarian nobles joined Rakoczi's uprising in April. Habsburg General Count Paris Spankau's army pillaged the Mura River valley and captured the family of Count Peter Zrinyi. Rakoczi defeated the Habsburgs at Gombas in Lipto County. In spite of previous promises, Fejedelem Mihaly Apafi of East Hungary and the Turkish Pasha of Eger refused to provide any help to Rakoczi's uprising. Rakoczi's main supporters Peter Zrinyi and Frangepan were captured by the Habsburgs. Other nobles capitulated, Rakoczi pulled back to Munkacs on May 15. A 10,000 men Habsburg army was led by General Johann Spork entered Upper-Hungary to punish the uprising nobles. The Habsburgs left Austrian guard units in the important fortresses. While some of the rebels were arrested, others escaped to East Hungary. The Habsburgs laid a siege to Istvan Thokoly's Arva Fortress in Dec. Thokoly died in battle and the fortress was lost. His son, Count Imre Thokoly escaped to East Hungary.


Trials of 230 rebels started in January. Several rich nobles, including Rakoczi were allowed to "pay-off their crime" with huge amounts of gold. Peter Zrinyi, Ferenc Frangepan, Ferenc Nadasdy and Ferenc Bonis were executed. - The small nobles and peasants of Szepes County rebelled against the pillaging Habsburgs in May. They elected Imre Thokoly as their leader. - Pasha Mehmed Kucsuk of Varad requested and received Doboka, Kolozs, Belso-Szolnok and Hunyad Counties from Fejedelem Apafi, without a fight. The East Hungarian National Assembly protested Apafi's political decisions. - Emperor I. Lipot fired 67% of the Hungarian mercenaries in the border fortresses and replaced them with Austrians in Dec. Lipot also requested that their pay, 870,000 gold is to be paid by the Hungarians.


Sultan IV. Mehmed started his military campaign against Poland on June 5. He requested 600 carts of food supply from Fejedelem Apafi. About 1000 anti-Habsburg rebels hiding in East Hungary reorganized under Istvan Petroczi. They entered Upper-Hungary and they quickly grew to several thousand men. They captured Kallo, Onod, Tokaj and Szendro fortresses in August. They decisively defeated Habsburg General Paris Spankau at Enyick in Abauj County on Sept 14. Captain Mihaly Teleki of Kovar, the 1st noble from East Hungary also joined the rebellion on Sep 16. Teleki lost a battle at Batiz-Vasvar on Sept 20. During October Petroczi's rebel army captured the Eperjes Fortress and Saros and Szepes Counties. - The East Hungarian National Assembly still was unvilling to provide support to the rebels and scorned Teleki. - Slovak peasants living in Upper-Hungary, led by Gaspar Pika, joined the anti-Habsburg uprising and captured the Arva Fortress from the Habsburgs on Oct 20. Habsburg General Spankau defeated the Slovak rebels at Gyorke in Abauj County and surrounded Pika's troops in Arva on Oct 26. The Habsburgs captured the Arva Fortress on Nov 24 and they executed Pika and 24 rebel leaders. The remaining rebel armies pulled back East for the Winter. - The Vlachs of Moldovia chased out their Armenian population. Apafi allowed the Armenians to settle in Doboka County.


Emperor I. Lipot declared the Hungarian Constitution invalid. He replaced high position Hungarians with Austrians. - The Jan Sobieski led Polish army destroyed Grand Vizier Ahmed Koprulu's army at Chozim on Nov 10.


The anti-Hubsburg rebels elected Mihaly Teleki as their General in Szalonta. Another group of rebels elected Baron Pal Wesseleny as their General in Csatar - Polish General Jan Sobieski, a hero of their Turkish wars, was elected as new King of Poland on May 20.


Representatives of French King XIV. Louie visited the rebels to discuss their anti-Habsburg alliance. XIV. Louie promised to send a 12,000 men French army to help the rebels, but this promise was never kept. - The Hungarian freedom fighters named themselves "Kuruc" and named their enemies, the Habsburgs, "Labanc". The several decades long war was often referred to as the "Kuruc-Labanc War". Kuruc General Pal Wesselenyi laid a siege to Szatmar. Labanc General Strassoldo relieved the siege with his army. Wesselenyi captured Szadvar and Torna fortresses in Torna County in July. Another Kuruc army in Szabolcs County defeated the Labancs at Kallo, and the Labancs won at Boszormeny in Aug. Labanc Strassoldo captured Debrecen City on Dec 6.


Kuruc General Pal Wesselenyi defeated Labanc General Strassaldo at Onod in April. A Kuruc army lost at Kallo, but took Nanas in May. - The East Hungarian National Assembly finally agreed to help the Kuruc freedom fighters. The Kuruc leaders pledged their allegiance to Fejedelem Apafi. Apafi selected Mihaly Teleki as Supreme General of the Kuruc armies. - The Turkish-Polish War ended with a peace treaty on Oct 27. Mustapha Kara became new Grand Vizier of the Turks.


French King XIV. Louie agreed to send 100,000 gold yearly to support the Kuruc army and he finally sent 2000 troops to join the Kuruc army in Sept. The united army defeated the Habsburg Labanc army at Nyalabvar in Ugocsa County on Oct 10. Fejedelem Apafi allowed Imre Thokoly to recruit new rebels for the Kuruc army anywhere in East Hungary. Kuruc General Wesselenyi captured Nagybanya on Nov 22. General Thokoly and his new recruits joined the Kurucs.


Generals Teleki and Imre Thokoly united their Kuruc armies at Tasnad in Kozep Szolnik County on May 11. A Polish army sent by Sobieski joined the Kuruc forces on May 24. Teleki's army captured Boldogko, Varalja, Torna, Szalanc and Putnok Fortresses in June and July. Thokoly's Kurucs captured Szendro and Murany in Aug. Teleki laid a 2-week siege to Eperjes but pulled back when a large Labanc army approached on Aug 13. Thokoly's army united with the rebelling Slovaks and took over Zolyom County in Sept. The defenders of Besztercebanya Fortress joined Thokoly on Oct 10. Thokoly lost a battle at Barsszentkereszt and pulled back on Nov 1.


German-Roman Emperor I. Lipot and French King XIV. Louie signed a peace treaty on Feb 5. The French support for the Kuruc Uprising officially ended. - Defiant East Hungarian Captain Janos Horvat and his army defeated a small Turkish tax collector army in July. - Thokoly's Kurucs won a decisive victory over the Labancs at Ujfalu in Abauj County on Nov 3.


Thokoly's Kuruc army captured the Vag Valley in July and they reached the Moravian border. Thokoly captured the Kesmark Fortress on Aug 15. Thokoly laid an unsuccessful siege to the Locse Fortress on Aug 22. Thokoly and the Habsburgs agreed to a truce on Nov 15.


Due to the news of a huge German-Roman and Habsburg army beig assembled against the Turks, Sultan IV. Mehmed finally allowed Fejedelem Apafi to fully support the Kuruc army. The Sultan also promised military help to Thokoly. - The Habsburg controlled West Hungarian National Assembly elected Count Pal Esterhazy as new Nador (Governor) on June 13. Esterhazy contacted Thokoly to start peace talks, but Thokoly refused. - Fejedelem Apafi recruited an 8000 men army against the Habsburgs on Aug 20. The Pasha of Varad joined Apafi's army with 7000 Turks on Aug 25. They united with Thokoly's 10000 Kuruc army on Sept 8. The combined 25,000 army captured Boszormeny and Kallo in Szabolcs County in Sept. Thokoly and I. Lipot agreed to a truce on Nov 13 and the armies moved to their Winter camps.


Imre Thokoly married Ilona Zrinyi, the widow of I. Ferenc Rakoczi on June 15. - Fejedelem Apafi recruted his army for the new campaign against the Habsburgs. - Thokoly captured the Labanc General Baron Herberstein at Kassa on July 7. Thokoly declared a country-wide anti-Habsburg uprising in Upper-Hungary on July 26. - Fejedelem Apafi led his army into West Hungary on Aug 5. Thokoly captured Kassa on Aug 14, and Fulek on Sept 10. - Pasha Ibrahim representing the Sultan accepted Imre Thokoly as Fejedelem of Upper-Hungary on Sep 16. With this, Hungary was effectively split into 4 separate territories: The Center and South was under Turkish rule, West Hungary was under Habsburg rule, Upper Hungary was under Hungarian Kuruc rule by Fejedelem Thokoly and East Hungary was ruled by Hungarian Fejedelem Apafi with Turkish dependence. - Thokoly captured the Mining Cities in Northern Hungary in Sept. Thokoly agreed to a truce with the Habsburgs on Nov 19. Thokoly established his headquarters in Kassa. Thokoly ruled in 18 counties of the original 54 counties of Hungary.


Sultan IV. Mehmed organized a large invasion of Austria, and requested Fejedelem Apafi to join him with his army. The Sultan left Drinapoly with a large army against the Habsburgs on April 1. The Sultan reached Nandorfehervar (Belgrad) on May 13. The Sultan stayed there and ordered his Grand Vizier, Mustapha Kara to lead the army North. The Crimean Tatars' army passed through East Hungary on their way to join Mustapha's army on May 26. The Vlach countries of Havasu and Moldovia also sent their armies to help the Turks. Thokoly's Kuruc army joined Mustapha's army at Eszek on June 7, but later Thokoly separated and fought against the Habsburgs within Hungary. The Turkish army captured Veszprem, Tata, Papa, Pannonhalma and Gyor in June. The Habsburg army of 30,000 men led by General Prince Karl Lotharing pulled back to Vienna without a fight on July 1. No significant Habsburg forces stayed defending Hungary. To escape from the approaching Turks, Emperor I. Lipot moved his Court from Vienna to Linz on July 7. - Fejedelem Apafi left Apahida with his army to join the Sultan on July 8. - Grand Vizier Mustapha Laid a siege to Vienna with 120,000 men on July 14. The defenders were led by Count Rudiger Starhemberg. - Smaller Turkish armies pillaged Lower-Austria in July. - The fortresses of Nagyszombat and Pozsony capitulated to Thokoly's Kuruc army in July. The Habsburgs re-took Pozsony on July 29. Most of the West Hungarian fortresses and counties pledged their allegiance to Fejedelem Thokoly. Mustapha sent an 8000 men Tatar army to assist Thokoly. A Polish army heading to relieve Vienna defeated Thokoly's Kuruc and the Tatar armies at Anger in Moravia on Aug 26. Mustapha requested Thokoly to join him at the siege of Vienna, but Thokoly stayed at the Hungarian border. - The Turks attacking Vienna lost around 30,000 men by Sept 9. The relief army was assembled from German (Emperor I. Lipot), Polish (King Jan Sobieski), Bavarian (Prince II. Miksa) and Saxonian (King III George Johann) armies on Sept 10. This united army had about 70,000 men. In a huge bloody battle at Kahlenberg the Habsburg alliance defeated the Turks on Sept 12. Grand Vizier Mustapha pulled back to Gyor on Sept 14 and to Buda on Sept 17. The smaller Turkish armies still pillaged Styria in Sept. The allied army led by Jan Sobieski followed the Turks towards Buda and defeated Pasha Mehmed Kara's army at Parkany in Esztergom County on Oct 12. Grand Vizier Mustapha Kara left Buda for Nandorfehervar on Oct 13. Sobieski's allied army captured the Esztergom Fortress on Oct 27. - Thokoly pulled back to Debrecen for his Winter Camp on Nov 16. Sobieski left Hungary in Dec. - The Sultan had Mustapha Kara executed in Nandorfehervar as punishment for the Turk's defeat on Dec 25. [This war of 1683 could be named as a "World War" considering the number of countries involved.]


Thokoly's Kuruc and allied Tatar army laid an unsuccesful siege to the Szatmar Fortress on Feb 9, but they captured the Karoly Fortress on Feb 15. - Emperor I. Lipot sent his General Karl Lotharing into West Hungary to reestablish the Habsburg dominance. 17 counties pledged allegiance to I. Lipot in Feb. Thokoly captured the Kesmark Fortress on March 5 and Kisszeben on March 17. The Habsburg Labanc armies pushed Thokoly out of Saros County. The Thokoly's ally Tatar army returned home. Fejedelem Thokoly announced his recruitment for the Kuruc army on May 17. - General Karl Lotharing with 40,000 men captured the Visegrad Fortress from the Turks on June 13. The Pasha Mustapha Kara led Turkish counter attack was unsuccessful on June 18, with huge losses on both sides. Lotharing's army defeated Mustapha's army again at Vac on June 27. - Thokoly captured Ungvar. - Lotharing captured Pest on June 30. Lotharing defeated Mustapha at Szentendre on July 10. Mustapha pulled back to Erd. Lotharing laid a siege to the Buda Fortress on July 14. It was defended by Pasha Ibrahim with 10,000 men. - Venice declared war on the Sultan and invaded Dalmatia on July 15. Lotharing's army scattered Pasha Mustapha's army at Erd on July 22. - Habsburg armies led by Counts Walter Leslie and Maximilian Trautmannsdorff advanced against the Turks between the Drava and Szava rivers, and captured Veroce on July 22, (after 130 years in Turkish hands). - Thokoly's Kuruc army lost a battle at Eperjes on Sept 17. - The Habsburgs captured Bartfa and Makovica from the Turks in Saros County. General Lotharing gave up the siege of Buda on Nov 3. The Habsburgs gave up their siege to Kuruc allied Eperjes Fortress on Nov 29. - The Sultan ordered Fejedelem Apafi to resupply the Buda Fortress on Nov 15. Apafi refused citing unsuccessful crops.


Emperor I. Lipot requested that Fejedelem Mihaly Apafi join him against the Turks. - The East Hungarian National Assembly declared their separation from Thokoly's Kuruc army, but they were unable to agree to severe their ties to the Turks.. - Grand Vizier Ibrahim assembled an 80,000 men army in Nandorfehervar. He resupplied the Hungarian territories still under Turkish rule. - Fejedelem Thokoly, not having enough troops to stand up against the Habsburgs requested Turkish military help to reinforce his fortress guards in Upper Hungary, but Pasha Ahmed of Varad refused on April 11. - West Hungarian General Mihaly Teleki and I. Lipot made a secret agreement to allow the Habsburgs to take over West Hungary. - The Habsburgs laid an unsuccessful 3-week siege to the Kuruc Fortress Ungvar on May 22. - General Karl Lotharing assembled an 80,000 men army, consisting of 33,000 Germans, 22,000 Austrians and 25,000 West Hungarians. They laid a siege to Ersekujvar on July 7. Turkish Pasha Ibrahim of Buda laid a siege to Esztergom on July 26. General Lotharing's army relieved the Turk's siege to Esztergom on Aug 16 and captured Ersekujvar on Aug 19. Habsburg General Schulz captured the Kuruc held fortress Eperjes on Sept 11, and Tokaj on Sept 29. Several Kuruc held fortresses, including Kallo, Kisvarda and Szerencs fell to the Habsburgs in Oct. Pasha Ahmed tricked and captured Imre Thokoly and offered him to the Habsburgs as a bargaining chip. - The East Hungarian National Assembly again refused to severe their ties to the Sultan and did not accept Emperor I. Lipot's rule. - Kuruc defenders of Kassa capitulated to Habsburg General Count Aeneas Caprara on Oct 25. Caprara captured the Kuruc held Sarospatak on Oct 31. Habsburg General Count Anton Caraffa led his army into East Hungary on Nov 1. Kuruc held Szadvar and Regec capitulated to General Caprara on Nov 5. This left only the Munkacs Fortress defended by Ilona Zrinyi in Kuruc hands. - The Habsburgs stopped their advancement into East Hungary for a payment of 100,000 gold on Nov 27. But by breaking the agreement additional Habsburg armies entered West Hungary in Dec.


Fejedelem Imre Thokoly was freed in Nandorfehervar, but he had no country left to return to. - General Caraffa started pillaging and forcing huge ransom payments from the Upper-Hungarian territories. Emperor I. Lipot refused to respond to complaints from the Hungarians. - Habsburg General Count Claude-Florimond Mercy destroyed a Tatar army stationed near Szeged on April 24. - The Habsburgs gave up their unsuccessful siege to Ilona Zrinyi's Munkacs Fortress on April 27. - Grand Vizier Suleiman left Istambul with a large army to re-take Hungary. - Imre Thokoly was chased out of East Hungary on June 2. - Habsburg General Karl Lotharing with 65,000 men laid a siege to the Buda Fortress on June 18. Buda was defended by Pasha Arnot Abdurraman with 10,000 Turks. - Emperor I. Lipot and Fejedelem Apafi agreed on June 28 that East Hungary will become part of the Habsburg Empire, but Apafi will remain in his position, and all Habsburg troops will be removed from East Hungary. - Grand Vizier Suleiman led Turkish army advancing to relieve Buda was defeated by the Habsburg-West Hungarian army at Bia on Aug 14. The Buda Fortress fell on Sept 2, after 145 years of Turkish rule. - A Habsburg-Hungarian army led by Count Louie Baden captured Simontornya in Tolna County and Szeged on Sep 23, Pecs on Oct 22, Siklos in Baranya County on Oct 30 and Kaposvar on Nov 12. Most of Szlavonia was freed from the Turks in Nov.


In spite of the 1686 agreement between I. Lipot anf Fejedelem Apafi, the Habsburgs under the leadership of General Caraffa invaded East Hungary. The Habsburgs started their "Blood Courts" against the Kurucs in Eperjes in Feb. - General Caraffa ordered Colonel Count Terzi to lay a siege to the Munkacs Fortress still held by Thokoly's wife, Ilona Zrinyi in March. - General Caraffa started arresting non-Kuruc Hungarian nobles, wealthy citizens, jesuits, reformeds and protestans. The executions started on March 5. Some of the prisoners were just simply tortured to death. Churches and schools were torched and destroyed. Fejedelem Apafi submitted complaints against the Habsburgs merciless barbarism to Sobieski Polish King and to the French King. - Grand Vizier Suleiman posted Imre Thokoly and Pasha Dsafer to guard the bridge at the Petervarad Fortress in Szerem County on July 9. General Karl Lotharing defeated Suleimans army at Nagyharsany in Baranya County on Aug 12. Rebellion broke out within the Turkish Camp and Suleiman escaped to Nandorfehervar on Sep 5. The Turkish defenders of Eszek capitulated on Sep 29. - General Lotharing invaded East Hungary and captured the Somlyo Fortress on Oct 13. Habsburg General Friedrich Veterani captured Kolozsvar on Oct 18. - During the West Hungarian National Assembly Emperor I. Lipot forced the nobles to accept his sons to be heirs to the Hungarian Throne. In exchange I. Lipot agreed to restore the Hungarian Constitution. [Well, we know about false Habsburg promises, even the Turks were more trustworthy.] - The Habsburgs in East Hungary captured Szamosujvar (Oct 20) and Szeben (Oct 30). They also took Valpo in Veroce County from the Turks. - The Blood Court of Eperjes was closed on Nov 3. - Count Janos Esterhazy retook the Palota Fortress from the Turks on Nov 22. General Caraffa captured the Eger Fortress from Pasha Rustem on Dec 17. - Janos Rezik, Principal from Eperjes published his record of the terror committed by General Caraffa. (Theatrum Eperiense, sive laniena Eperiensis)


Ilona Zriny and the defenders of Munkacs agreed to give up the fortress in exchange for the defenders to keep their rank, freedom and property on Jan 14. This effectively finished Fejedelem Thokoly's Upper-Hungarian Kingdom. - I. Lipot settled a large number of foreigners by awarding them the Hungarian nobles' properties and the territories taken from the Turks. - Thokoly's remaining small Kuruc army was defeated by General Donathus Heisler at Telegd and at Varad in February. The Kuruc army escaped to Turkish held Nandorfehervar. - General Caraffa forced Fejedelem Apafi to accept the Habsburgs as Kings on May 9. - After a long siege, Hungarian Count Adam Batthyany captured the Szekesfehervar Fortress on May 19. General Caraffa captured the Lippa Fortress on June 20. Habsburg General Aeneas Sylvius Caprara captured Ujlak, Illok and Petervarad from the Turks in July. - Emperor I. Lipot named Count Elector Miksa Emanuel of Bavaria to be Supreme General of the Habsburg army in Hungary on July 28. Emanuel started organizing the siege of Nandorfehervar. The siege was started on Aug 9 and they took Nandorfehervar (Belgrad) on Sep 6. The Habsburgs captured 3 fortresses in the Szava Valley from the Turks in August. - New war broke out between XIV. Louie French King and Emperor I. Lipot in the Rayna area on Sep 24.


The Turkish held Szigetvar capitulated on Jan 26. - Peace talks between the Habsburgs and Turks failed in Feb. - A newly organized Turkish army reached Sofia on June 26. Habsburg Count Louie Badeni settled into Nandorfehervar with 22,000 defenders on July 11. - The small Kuruc army led by Imre Thokoly, with a small army allies from Moldovia and Turkey captured Orsova on July 15. - General Baden defeated the advancing Turks at Batochi on Aug 30. Badeni entered Serbia and captured the Nis Fortress on Sep 24. Badeni started to organize the Serbs' rebellion against the Turks. General Badeni reached Bulgaria and captured the Vidin Fortress on Oct 14. Serbian Patriarch Arzen Crnojevic and his followers pledged allegiance to Emperor I. Lipot, and accepted Lipot as their King on Nov 15. - The Habsburgs left 24,000 men in Hungary. Most of the Habsburg armies were fighting against the French and the Turks. - The Parvus Atlas Hungariae shows 2605 cities, towns and villages within Hungary.


General Louie Badeni advised Emperor I. Lipot to give up the Balkan Campaign and establish a defensive line at the Southern Hungarian border along the Danube and Szava rivers. Foreseeing the return of the Turks, thousands of Serbs moved into Southern Hungary. - Hungarian Counts Adam Batthyany and Istvan Zichy captured the Kanizsa Fortress on April 13 after a long siege. - East Hungarian Fejedelem Mihaly Apafi died on April 15. The nobles asked I. Lipot to allow the Fejedelem's son, II. Mihaly Apafi to the Throne. - Sultan III. Suleiman named Imre Thokoly as new Fejedelem of East Hungary. [Obviously the Sultan wanted the long time enemy of the Habsburgs on the Throne.] The Sultan ordered a Crimean Tatar army and Vajda Constantin Brincoveanu's Havasu army to help Thokoly on June 18. East Hungarian General Mihaly Teleki declared a nationwide recruiting of an army against Thokoly on July 18. Thokoly entered East Hungary on Aug 21 and soundly defeated Teleki's Hungarian and Habsburg troops at Zernyest. General Teleki died in the battle, Habsburg Generals Donathus Heisler and Doria were captured. - The Turks recaptured Vidin in Bulgaria from Habsburg Colonel Hompesch on Aug 29. Grand Vizier Mustapha Koprulu after a 3-week siege recaptured the Serbian Nis Fortress defended by Habsburg General Guido Starhemberg. - The East Hungarian National Assembly elected Imre Thokoly as Fejedelem on Sep 15. General Louie Baden invaded East Hungary with the main Habsburg army on Sep 19 at Vaskapu. - The Grand Vizier laid a siege to Nandorfehervar with 40,000 infantry and 20,000 cavalry on Oct 1. The defender General Ferdinand Gobert Aspremont-Reckheim capitulated 7 days later. - General Badeni defeated the Kuruc army led by Istvan Petroczi and Gaspar Sandor at Hatszeg in Hunyad County on Oct 3. - Thokoly's army lost a battle at Brasso on Oct 25, and Thokoly's army escaped to Havasu.


Vajda Constantin Brincoveanu chased out Thokoly's army from Havasu into Bulgaria in Feb. - General Count Ferdinand Gobert Aspremont-Reckheim married Julianna Rakoczi, sister of II. Ferenc Rakoczi in Vienna. - Thokoly and his army joined a Turkish army headed against the Habsburgs and reached Karansebes on July 7. The Lugos Fortress in Temes County pledged allegiance to Thokoly. - Habsburg General Count Louie Badeni stationed at Mohacs with 80,000 men. - Imre Thokoly's army joined Grand Vizier Mustapha Koprulu's army at Nandorfehervar on Aug 2. - General Badeni defeated Mustapha Koprulu's army at Szalankemen in Szerem County on Aug 19. The Turkish losses were 20,000 men including Grand Vizier Koprulu himself. - Serbian Patriarch Arzen Cernojevich led thousands of Serbs from the Turks into Sothern Hungary for sanctuary. Emperor I. Lipot awarded special rights and privileges to the Serbs on Aug 20. - General Count Friedrich Veterani captured the Lippa Fortress in Temes County from the Turks on Sept 12. - Habsburg General Badeni laid a siege to the 2000 men Turkish held Varad Fortress on Oct 12.


Prisoner exchange: Ilona Zrinyi (Imre Thokoly's wife) was exchanged for captured Habsburg General Donathus Heisler in Jan. - The Habsburgs captured Varad from the Turks after a 7-month siege on June 5. - The Habsburgs united their forces and laid a siege to Petervarad. Due to a typhoid epidemic, the Habsburg army was disbanded. - The Habsburgs taxed Hungary at 2 million gold per year.


Habsburg General Count Siegbert Heister laid a siege to the Jeno Fortress in Zarand County. The Turkish defenders gave up the fortress in exchange for free withdrawal on May 27. - Habsburg General Prince Eugene Croy with 35,000 men laid a siege to Nandorfehervar (Belgrad) on Aug 12. Turkish Grand Vizier Muspha Bozuklu sent a relief army to Nandorfehervar. General Croy pulled back to Bacs County without a battle on Sep 10. - Crimean Tatars in alliance with the Turks pillaged East Hungary and left with 6000 prisoners. - The French support to Imre Thokoly was stopped.


Emperor I. Lipot ordered Serbs living in Szlavonia to move into the South Hungarian area (now called Voivodina) between the Danube and Tisza rivers in May. - Grand Vizier Pasha Ali Surmeli laid a siege to Petervarad on Sep 14. The 26,000 men Habsburg defenders were led by General Count Aeneas Caprara. After 3 weeks the Turks gave up the siege and pulled back to Nandorfehervar. - II. Ferenc Rakoczi married Princess Sarolta Amalia of Hessen-Rheinfels in Koln on Sep 26.


Habsburg General Veterani captured the Gyula Fortress from the Turks after a 1 year siege. Now the Turks lost most of Hungary, except the Tisza-Maros rivers area. - Turkish Sultan II. Ahmed died. II. Mustapha followed him on the Throne on Feb 6. - Sultan II. Mustapha led a 50,000 men army from Nandorfehervar against the Habsburgs on Aug 9. The Sultan captured the Lippa Fortress on Sep 7, while the Habsburgs were sitting in the nearby Petervarad with 60,000 men. The Sultan defeated Habsburg General Veterani and his 10,000 men army at Lugos on Sep 21. The General died in the battle. Karansebes in Temes County was abandoned by the Habsburgs. - Kuruc peasant leader Tamas Esze and Kuruc Lieutenant Albert Kis started to organize an anti-Habsburg rebellion in the Nagybanya mountains in Sept. They pledged their allegiance to Imre Thokoly.


East Hungarian Fejedelem II. Mihaly Apafi was interned by Emperor I. Lipot in Vienna. He died as a prisoner of Lipot in 1713. - Habsburg General, I. Agost Frederick, Prine-Elector of Saxonia, laid a siege to Turkish held Temesvar on July 14. After the news of the Sultan's army crossing the Danube at Pancsova, the General gave up the siege and headed to battle the Sultan. Their battle at the Bega River resulted in a draw on Aug 26. Both armies pulled back. - Tamas Esze and Albert Kis continued recruiting their Kuruc army in Bereg County. - I. Lipot forced a tax reform to increase his tax income from Hungary.


Emperor I. Lipot accepted the Prince Rank of II. Ferenc Rakoczi. - Tamas Esze and other Kuruc leaders were captured by FoIspan Sandor Karolyi in Szatmar County. - Sultan II. Mustapha left Istambul with his army to retake Hungary from the Habsburgs on July 17. - Habsburg Lieutenant-General Count Otto Ferdinand Auersperg and Ban Count Adam Batthyany of Horvatorszag laid a siege to the Turkish held Bihacs in Bosnia on June 21. The Pasha of Bosnia sent a relief army to Bihacs and the Habsburg-Hungarian army pulled back from Bosnia on June 29. - Saxonian Prince-Elector I. Frederick Agost was elected to be King of Poland by the Polish nobles on June 27. - The Kuruc peasants attacked and defeated a Habsburg tax collector army in Satoraljaujhely in Zemplen County on June 30. Kuruc Lieutenant Ferenc Tokaji and Judge Gyorgy Szalontai defeated the Habsburgs defending the Tokaj and Sarospatak fortresses on July 1. The Kuruc leaders approached Prince Ferenc Rakoczi to be their leader, but Rakoczi refused and moved to Vienna to avoid association with the rebels. - The Habsburgs sent Lieutenant-General Prince Charles Vaudemont from the Turkish border with a 3000 men cavalry and 1000 men infantry against the Kuruc rebellion. 5000 heavy infantry led by General Baron Adam Ritschan joined them. The Habsburg (Labanc) army defeated the Kuruc army at the Harangod Field on July 6 and on July 11. Vaudemont's army pillaged Tarcal and laid a siege to the Tokaj Fortress on July 17. The Kuruc army broke out and abandoned Tokay on July 20. - The Sultan's army of 80,000 men crossed the Danube at Pancsova on Aug 19. The Habsburgs assembled their army at Szabadka, including Lieutenant General Vaudemont from Upper-Hungary, Field Marshall Jean-Louis Rabutin de Bussy from Erdely and Price Jeno Savoyai with the main army, 60,000 men in total. The 2 armies battled at Zenta, with a decisive Habsburg victory on Sept 11. The Turks lost 30,000 men, including Grand Vizier Mehmed Elmas. Sultan II. Mustapha escaped to Temesvar. - Heading South General Prince Jeno Savoyai captured Sarajevo in Bosnia on Oct 23. Field Marshall Rabutin de Bussy captured Ujpalanka in Bacs County and Pancsova on Nov 8.


Emperor I. Lipot doubled the tax to be paid by Hungary to 4 million gold per year. The nobles share was 1/4 million, the Church's share was 1/4 million and the peasants' share was 3.5 million. - The Habsburgs and the Turks agreed to a truce on Oct 18.


Emperor I. Lipot and Sultan II. Mustapha signed the Karloca Peace Treaty on Jan 26. It was for 25 years. The current border was finalized with all of Hungary under the Habsburgs rule, except the Danube-Tisza-Maros area which remained under Turkish rule. The Sultan agreed not to support Imre Thokoly and the Kuruc rebels. - The Habsburgs disbanded most Hungarian troops and fortress guards, and destroyed many Hungarian fortresses away from the borders.


German-Roman Emperor I. Lipot, English King III. William and French King XIV. Louie agreed split up the Royal Spanish holdings after the death of Spanish King II. Charles. The Habsburgs received the American colonies and the German Lowlands (Holland and Belgium) - The "Norther War broke out between eden and Denmark. Russia and Poland jioned shortly. - Prince Ferenc Rakoczi started his anti-Habsburg organization. Serb Patriarch Arzen Crnojevich offered his alliance with 40,000 Serbian border guards. Rakoczi turned to French King XIV Louie for help, but his request was leaked to the Habsburgs by traitor Francoaz Joseph Longueval. - Swedish King XII. Charles soundly defeated Russian Tsar I. Peter the Great at Narva on Nov 30.


The Spanish Throne War started between France (allies: Portugal, Bavaria and Savoya) and the Habsburgs (allies: England and Holland) in Feb. - The Habsburgs arrested Prince Ferenc Rakoczi and his allies on April 18. Some of Rakoczi's allies escaped to Poland and asked the French King for assistance again, but the King refused again in Aug. - The Habsburgs started a treachery trials against Rakoczi and his allies in Aug. - Prussia and several smaller German Kingdoms joined the Habsburgs against France on Sept 7. - Ferenc Rakoczi's wife, Sarolta Amalia using her german family connections organized a successful attempt to free his husband from Wiener-Neustadt on Nov 8. The Captain of the Guards, Gittfried Lehmann was executed by the Habsburgs as punishment. Emperor I. Lipot offered a 10,000 gold blood money for the capture of Rakoczi. Rakoczi took refuge in Poland and reunited with his allies there on Nov 25.


Kuruc leaders led by Gyorgy Szalontai visited Rakoczi to ask him to lead the Kuruc-peasant rebellion in Jan. Rakoczi refused to lead them, because he wanted a foreign mercenary army to fight against the Habsburgs. - I. Lipot sold the Jasz-Kun area to the Teutonic Knights for 1/2 million gold in March. - French King XIV Louie refused to offer any help Rakoczi again in April. - Swedish King XII. Charles defeated Polish King II. Agost near Warsaw on July 19. - I. Lipot ordered the Hungarian nobles to send 8000 cavalry and 4000 infantry to help the Emperor against France. Recruiting in Hungary started in Dec. Kuruc leaders Tamas Esze and Albert Kis secretly joined the recruiters for the purpose of recruiting for the Kuruc army in Bereg County.


Ferenc Rakoczi asked for the French King's help an assistance again for money, weapons and officers, a Polish mercenary army and the return of Imre Thokoly and his followers from Central Turkey. - Kuruc leaders Gyorgy Bige and Mihaly Pap visited Rakoczi and asked him to lead the Kuruc army. "The people are ready, they just need a leader." Rakoczi agreed to send several of his men to review the country's readiness. - The French-Bavarian troops entered Tirol to fight against the Habsburgs. - Swedish King XII. Charles defeated Polish King II. Agost near Warsaw again on May 1. Most of Poland fell under Swedish rule. - After Rakoczi's scouts returned from Hungary, he agreed to take the lead of the uprising. Ferenc Rakoczi and Miklos Bercsenyi called all of Hungary, nobles and peasants into arms against the opressive Habsburgs on May 6. The 1st official Kuruc flags were given to Tamas Esze: red flags with "Cum Deo Pro Patria et Libertate". - The largest bank in the Empire, Jewish owned Samuel Oppenheimer Bank went bankrupt on May 26 and started a huge financial turmoil in the Empire. A Venetian style federal bank was established in Vienna - The Vienna Court punished the absent Ferenc Rakoczi with the death penalty on May 31. - Habsburg loyalist FoIspan Baron Sandor Karoly defeated a small Kuruc army at Dolha in Maramaros County on June 7. He sent the captured new flags to Vienna. - Rakoczi left his hiding place of Drozdowice in Galicia and headed towards Hungary on June 9. He was joined by a small Kuruc army led by Tamas Esze at the border on June 14. An 80 men Hungarian Cavalry led by Laszlo Ocskai and Balazs Borbely joined Rakoczi at Zavadka. Rakoczi's cavalry reached 400 men. - The French-Bavarian army took Innsbruck from the Habsburgs and kept I. Lipot busy. - Count Miklos Bercsenyi recruited 400 cavalry and 200 infantry men in Poland from the French money. He joined up with Rakoczi at Zavadka on July 4. Rakoczi's army reached the Tisza and chased away the crossing guards on July 14. He crossed the Tisza at Nameny. Rakoczi called upon the Hungarian nobles to join the Kuruc army on July 18. Bihar County and Szabolcs County nobles joined Rakoczi in July. The fortress guards of Ecsed, Debrecen and Kallo pledged their allegiance to Rakoczi. The Haiduks joined Rakoczi in Aug. A Habsburg allied Serbian army defeated Andras Bone's Kuruc army at Varadolaszi. In a 2nd battle of Varadolaszi Andras Bone defeated the Serbs. Rakoczi called upon the Sers to join the Hungarians against the Habsburgs and promised to uphold the current rights and privileges of the Serbs. The Kuruc army laid a siege to Kovar on Aug 10 and to Szatmar on Aug 14. Nagybanya joined Rakoczi. - Rakoczi called upon the Kuruc army to avoid robbing an pillaging. - The Huszt Fortress and the Maramaros nobles joined Rakoczi on Aug 17. A hostile Serb army was defeated by Colonel Andras Bone at Belfenyer in Bihar County on Sept 1. Colonel Pal Orosz captured Sarospatak on Sept 2. - The French-Bavarian army captured Passau. - Colonel Laszlo Ocskay captured Rimaszombat, Losonc, Fulek Korpona Leva and the Garam Valley mining cities on Sept. The Erdely Kuruc army defeated FoIspan Baron Mihaly Szava's army at Brad in Zarand County. The Kuruc army defeated Field Marshall Rabutin at Szentbenedek on Sept 20. The Kurucs captured Szolnok on Sept 21. A Kuruc army defeated Habsburg Colonel Baron Johann Kyba at Halas on Oct 3. FoIspan Baron Sandor Karolyi joined Rakoczi on Oct 15. He was promoted to General. The Nograd County nobles joined Rakoczi. - Emperor I. Lipot offered clemency to those abandoning Rakoczi and offered a 1 million gold tax reduction. - Habsburg Lieutenant-General Schlick and Count Simon Forgach led the Imperial army against Rakoczi in Upper-Hungary on Oct 15. Lt General Schlick captured Leva and the mining cities in Nov. Kuruc General Bercsenyi captured Eger. - Savoya joid the Habsburg coalition against France on Nov 8. - Kuruc armies led by Pal Orosz and Andras Bone defeated the combined Szekler-Habsburg army at Bonchida in oboka County on Nov 10. The Szekler's Major, Istvan Thoroczkay was captured. After a discussion with Rakoczi, Thoroczkay and his Szeklers joined the Kuruc army. The Hungarian nobles of Erdely also started to join Rakoczi. - French King XIV. Louie accepted Rakoczi's right to the Throne of Erdely. He sent 10,000 gold for aid. - Bercsenyi and Karolyi Kuruc Generals soundly defeated Habsburg General Simon Forgach at Zolyom on Nov 15. The other Habsburg General Schlick abandoned the Upper-Hungarian fortresses and cities and pulled back to Pozsony. Kuruc General Count Miklos Bercsenyi chased Schlick and captured Upper-Hungary until the Morva River in Dec. - The French-Bavarian army captured Augsburg on Dec 13. - Ex-Habsburg Colonel Janos Nottyan was promoted to a Kuruc General by Rakoczi on Dec 20. General Sandor Karolyi entered Austria and captured Marchegg near Vienna on Dec 24. - Serb Patriarch Crnojevich, former ally of Rakoczi was freed by I. Lipot after he agreed that his Serbs will fight against the Hungarians.


Rakoczi's Kuruc army captured Tokaj from Lieutenant Colonel Karl Wildenheim Habsburg army after a 4-month siege on Jan 9. - The defenders of Passau capitulated to the French army on Jan 9. - Kuruc General Sandor Karolyi crossed the frozen Danube with 5000 men at Csallokoz on Jan 11 and started his Dunantul (the area between the Danube and Drava rivers) campaign. - Rakoczi called upon the Croatian citizens of Hungary to Join him against the Habsburgs. Rakoczi called upon the Catholic and Protestant Churches to keep their peace. - Count Mihaly Teleki, Captain of Kovar capitulated and joined the Kuruc army. - The Szeklers' Kuruc army led by Colonel Istvan Guthi was defeated by Habsburg Colonel Jean-Charles Tige at Holdvilag on Jan 28. - Rakoczi declared a military draft to all counties. Rakoczi established his headquarters in Miskolc. - Serbs in alliance with the Habsburgs pillaged Pecs for 2 days in Feb. - The 1st group of 500 Thokoly's Kuruc soldiers arrived to Erdely from Turkey. - Rakoczi unsuccessfully asked help from the Polish, Swedish, and Prussian Kings in Feb. - Rakoczi called upon the Saxsons of Erdely to join him against the Habsburgs. - The Polish nobles elected Sanislo Leszczynski to replace II. Agost on the Polish Throne on Feb 14. - Trencsen capitulated on Feb 13 and Munkacs on Feb 16 to the Kurucs. Kuruc General Karolyi captured a large area of the Dunantul in Feb. Habsburg Colonel Tige pillaged Nagyenyed on March 13. Habsburg Captain Franz Schwetlik gave up Ungvar on March 16. - Peace talks between I. Lipot and II. Rakoczi were unsuccessful. - Habsburg (Labanc) Field Marshall Heister defeated kuruc General Karolyi at Feketevaros in Sopron County on March 20. The Kuruc troops pulled out of the Dunantul. - General Count Simon Forgach broke his alliance with the Habsburgs and joined Rakoczi's army as a Field Marshall on April 1. - Gyulafehervar was captured from the Habsburgs on April 7. Habsburg General Ludwig Ferdinand Graven defeated the Szekler Kuruc army at Feketehalom near Brasso on April 13. - Rakoczi started his Dunantul campaign on April 17. - Colonel Count Antal Esterhazy broke his alliance to the Habsburgs and joined Rakoczi. He was declared a General. Habsburg Field Marshall Heister defeated Esterhazy at Csikvar in Fejer County on May 25. Heister pillaged Veszprem. Kuruc General Miklos Bercsenyi defeated Labanc General Baron Adam Ritschan at Szomolany on May 28. Ritschan was captured. - General Karolyi advanced his Kuruc army to Vienna. - Labanc Field Marshall Heister with 10,000 men defeated Kuruc Field Marshall Forgach with 18,000 men at Koronco in Gyor County on June 13. - Rakoczi turned South against the hostile Serb border guards, and to connect with the Pasha of Temesvar, hoping for a possible Turkish help. - The German-English army defeated the Bavarian army at Donauworth on July 2. - A 250 men Thokoly Kuruc army arrived to Erdely from Turkey in July. - Kuruc General Karolyi defeated Labanc General Count Joseph Rabatta at Szentgotthard in Vas County on July 4. - The Hungarian National Assembly elected II. Ferenc Rakoczi as Fejedelem on July 8. - Labanc Lieutenant Colonel surrendered the Bacs Fortress to Rakoczi. Rakoczi defeated the Serb border guards at Feketeviz in Bacs County on July 12. Rakoczi took Szeged on July 20. - The Pasha of Temesvar refused to provide any help. - The German-English army defeated Bavarian Prince Miksa Emanuel at Hochstadt on Aug 13. - The Nyitra Fortress capitulated to the Kurucs on Aug 27. - Rakoczi and Lipot agreed to a truce until Oct 31. - Kuruc Captain Laszlo Ocskay pillaged Lower-Austria and Labanc Field Marshall Heister captured Siklos, Simontornya and Dunafoldvar, both claiming that they were unaware of the truce. Labanc Field Marshall Rabutin relieved the Kuruc siged Kolozsvar, took the Labanc defenders and destroyed the fortress. - Labanc Colonel Count Hercules Montecuccoli surrendered Kassa to the Kurucs on Oct 31. Kuruc General Janos Bottyan captured Ersekujvar on Nov 16. Kuruc Field Marshall Simon Forgach captured Eperjes from Labanc Colonel Wilson on Dec 1. Labanc Field Marshall Heister defeated Rakoczi at Nagyszombat on Dec 26.


Labanc Generals Glockelsperg and Lowenburg surrendered the Szabolcs Fortress after an 18-month siege to Kuruc Field Marshall Forgach. Labanc Colonel Zinzendorf surrendered the Eger Fortress to the Kurucs in Jan after an 8-month siege. - Rakoczi's army consisted of 20,000 cavalry, 4000 county cavalry, 13,000 mercenary infantry, 15,000 peasant infantry, 16,000 Szeklers' army, approx 68,000 total. - The Swedish-Polish war continued and the Swedish army captured Cracow. - Kuruc Field Marshall Bercsenyi captured 3 fortresses in Pozsony County, took over the Csallokoz and crossed the Danube. Bercsenyi defeated Labanc Field Marshall Heister on March 31. Heister chased Kuruc General Karolyi over the Danube at Paks on April 4. - Emperor I. Lipot died on May 5. His son, I. Joseph followed him on the Throne. He ruled until 1711. - The Imperial army captured Munich, capital of Bavaria on May 15. - The French aid to Rakoczi was raised to 16,000 gold per year. - General Bottyan built a military bridge on the Danube at Komlod in Tolna County. Bottyan laid a siege to Dunafoldvar. The Labanc General Glockelsperg relieved the siege. Bottyan pulled back to Komlod. Glockelsperg followed Bottyan to the bridge. Bottyan crossed the bridge and destroyed it to prevent the Labanc army to cross the Danube on June 29. - Kuruc Field Marshall Forgach captured the Medgyes Fortress in June. All but 3 fortresses (Szeben, Fogaras & Brasso) in Erdely now belonged to Rakoczi. - Denmark sent a 6000 men army to help the Habsburgs in Hungary. in July. - The Swedish army defeated the Russians at Kurland on July 16. - Labanc Field Marshall Herbeville defeated a Kuruc army at Vorosko on Aug 11. - Ex-Fejedelem Imre Thokoly died in Turkey on Sept 13. - Labanc Field Marshall Herbeville headed towards Erdely and pillaged Debrecen on Oct 22. - General Bottyan started his Dunantul Campaign, crossed the Danube and captured Dunafoldvar on Nov 4. Labanc General Herbeville defeated Rakoczi's army at Zsibo in Szilagy County on Nov 11. Rakoczi pulled back North and the Labanc army started to take over Erdely. Labanc Herbeville captured Kolozsvar on Nov 20. - Kuruc General Bottyan captured Tata in Komarom County on Nov 21. Bottyan captured Papa, Pannonhalma, Sarvar, Kapuvar and Koszeg in Dec. Bottyan defeated Labanc Hannibal Heister at Szentgotthard in Vas County on Dec 13. Bottyan laid an unsuccessful siege to the Sopron Fortress on Dec 24.


Kuruc Generals Janos Bottyan and Count Daniel Esterhazy laid an unsuccessful siege to the Esztergom Fortress on Feb 10. - Swedish King XII Charles defeated Polish King II Agost at Fraustadt in Silezia on Feb 3. - Habsburg (Labanc) General Count Leopold Herberstein defeated a smaller Kuruc army at Igal in Somogy County on Feb 14. - The ethnic Croatians offered a 15,000 men army to the Habsburgs against the Hungarians. - The Erdely (Transylvanian) National Assembly declared themselves to be part of Greater Hungary on March 8. Kuruc-Labanc peace talks started and Rakoczi's wife was released from Vienna. - German-English army led by Prince Marlborough defeated the French-Bavarian army at Ramillies in Belgium on May 23. - Rakoczi unsuccessfully asked Crimean Tatar Khan Gazi-Girai for a 30,000 men military help. - Generals Battyan and Esterhazy captured Sopron and Farkasd and advanced into Austria all the way to Vienna on Aug 18. Rakoczi captured Esztergom from Labanc General Franz Ferdinand Kucklander on Sep 16 after a 4-week siege. - Sweden and Poland agreed to a peace treaty and Sanislow Leszczynski was named new King of Poland on Sep 24. - Labanc Field Marshall Rabutin de Bussy laid an unsuccessful siege to Kassa on Sep 30. - Esztergom was recaptured by Labanc Field Marshall Starheimberg on Oct 12. - Kuruc Brigadier Adam Beri Balogh and Brigadier Imre Bezeredj destroyed Labanc Field Marshall Hannibal Heister in the Egervar-Gyorvar Battle on Nov 6-7. Heister was captured.


The Kuruc Senate declared the dethronement of the Habsburgs in Hungary on Jan 22. - Kuruc Field Marshall Lorinc Pekry defeated Labanc Colonel Tige at Szekelykocsard on Feb 10. - Habsburg allied Serb troops pillaged and burned Kecskamet on April 3. - Hungarian Labanc Colonel Pal Bagossy joined the Kurucs. - Kuruc Colonel Imre Bezeredj captured Koszeg on June 8. - Russian Tsar I. Peter The Great and Fejedelem II. Ferenc Rakoczi agreed to an alliance. The Tsar promised the Polish Throne (which was not his to give) to Rakoczi, also promised military help and that the Tsar will convince the Serbs to abandon the Habsburgs and join the Kurucs. - Rakoczi offered the Crown of Hungary to Bavarian Prince Emanuel Miksa on Oct 13. The Prince refused the offer due to his diminished military strength.


A Kuruc Patrol led by Janos Bornemissza captured the new Habsburg Supreme General Count Maximilian Starhemberg on Feb 15. - Rakoczi offered the Crown of Hungary to Prussian Crown Prince William Frederick. - The Habsburgs defeated the French-Bavarian army at Oudenaarde in Flandria on July 11. After this defeat the French army pulled back to defend France only and their help to Rakoczi ended. - Swedish King XII Charles crossed the Dnyeper River with a 110,000 army at Golovchin on July 13 and started his campaign against Russian Tsar I. Peter. This war cancellled the previously agreed upon Russian assistance to Rakoczi. - Rakoczi called upon Moravia and Silezia to join the Hungarians' fight against the common opressor Habsburgs. - Labanc Field Marhall Siegbert Heister defeated Rakoczi's Kuruc army at Trencsen on Aug 3. Rakoczi was injured in the battle. Kuruc Field Marshall Sandor Karolyi captured the Labanc stronghold Szaszsebes on Aug 24. Labanc Field Marshall Count Janos Palffy captured Nyitra on Aug 25. - Kuruc Brigadier Laszlo Ocskay became a traitor and joined the Habsburgs on Aug 28. Kuruc Colonel Adam Beri Balogh's army defeated Labanc General Dietrich Heinrich Nehem's 4000 men army at Kolesd in Tolna County on Sep 2. 2000 Labanc died and 300 was captured. Labanc Field Marshal Heister laid an unsuccessful siege to Ersekujvar.


Kuruc Field Marshall Antal Esterhazy defeated the advancing Habsburgs at Balla in Veszprem County on Jan 14. - Rakoczi unsuccessfully asked the Turks for military help. - The Labanc army captured the Arva Fortress on April 10. - Russian Tsar I. Peter The Great soundly defeated Swedish King XII Charles at Poltava on July 8. - Saxonian Crown Prince Agost invaded Poland to claim the Polish Throne for himself on Aug 8. Polish King Sanislow Leszczynski gave up his Kindom and left Poland. - Labanc Heister captured Veszprem on Sep 7. - The Habsburg-German army defeated the French at Malplaquet on Sep 11.- Polish Count Jozef Potocki joined Rakoczi with 4000 men on Nov 26. - Labanc Field Marshall captured Kesmark on Dec 13. - The bubonic plague killed around 200,000 people in Hungary.


II. Ferenc Rakoczi fought an undecided battle with Labanc Lt. General Damian Sickingen at Romhany in Nograd County on Jan 22. Labanc General Baron Georg Loffelholtz captured Locse on Feb 13. - Polish Count Jozef Potocki left Hungary with his 4000 men army on April 13. - Kuruc General Gyorgy Palocsai and Brigadier Adam Beri Balogh crossed the Danube and started their 'Dunantul' Campaign in July. They reached the Western border of Hungary at Sopron and at Koszeg. - Kuruc Brigadier Gabor Nagyszeghy surrendered Ersekujvar to Labanc Field Marshall Count Janos Palffy in Sept after a 2-month siege. Labanc General Jacob Joseph Cusani captured Szolnok from Kuruc Brigadier Janos Cajaghy on Oct 17. - The Habsburgs captured Brigadier Adam Beri Balogh at Szekszard in October and executed him. - The Habsburgs captured Sarospatak on Nov 10 and Krasznahorka on Nov 26. - The Turks declared war on the Russians, so neither can help Rakoczi. - Labanc Field Marshall Palffy captured the Eger Fortress from Kuruc Brigadier Miklos Perenyi on Nov 30. The Habsburgs capture Bartfa on Dec 4 and Eperjes on Dec 10. - The combined number of the Habsburg (Labanc) army in Hungary was 45,000 men. - Peace talks between the Kuruc and Labanc representatives were unsuccessful in Dec.


Rakoczi unsuccessfully asked Russian Tsar I. Peter the Great for military help in Jan. - Labanc Lt. General Count Friedrich Lowenburg captured Sarkad on Jan 11. - Labanc Palffy and Ferenc Rakoczi restarted the peace talks in late Jan. By April the Habsburgs promised clemency for all the Kurucs if they stop the rebellion and put down their arms. The National Assembly, without the approval of Fejedelem Rakoczi accapted the Habsburgs peace offer and authorized Karolyi to lay down their arms. - German-Roman Emperor I. Joseph died on April 17. His successor was VI. (Habsburg) Charles, already King of Spain. He ruled until 1740. - While Rakoczi was still in Poland seeking the help of Tsar Peter the Great, Kuruc General Baron Sandor Karolyi laid down their arms at Majteny in Szatmar County on May 1, effectively ending the 8-year "Rakoczi Freedom Fight". - In June both the Russian Tsar and the French King accepted the Habsburg rule in Hungary and refused offer any further help to Fejedelem Rakoczi. - The last Kuruc fortress, Munkacs, defended by Baron Istvan Sennyey surrendered to Labanc Field Marhall Palffy on June 24. - The Turkish army defeated I. Peter's Russian army at the Prut River on July 8. - Several Kuruc leaders accepted the Habsburgs amnesty and returned to Hungary from Poland in August. - VI. Charles was crowned new German-Roman Emperor in Oct. V. Phillip, grandson of French King XIV. Louie, was named new King of Spain.


German-Roman Emperor VI. Charles was crowned as III. Karoly, King of Hungary on May 22. - Kuruc Lieutenant Adam Javorka, who was organizing a new Kuruc uprising, was captured by the Habsburgs in June. He escaped from captivity and went to Poland. - Rakoczi and a small group of Kuruc leaders moved to France from Poland in Nov.


French King XIV. Louis and his former enemies (Habsburgs, England, Prussia, Holland, Savoya and Portugal) signed the Utrecht Peace Agreement on April 11. Major peace points: France and Spain cannot unite, the German Lowlands were given to Holland, French territories in North America were given to England, A number of see-ports throughout the world (including Gibraltar) was given to England.


French King XIV. Louis, German-Roman Emperor VI. Charles and Spanish King V. Philip signed the Rastatt (Bad-Wurtemberg) Peace Agreement on March 6. Major decisions: Spain gave small Kingdoms Naples, Sardinia, Milano and Belgium to the Habsburgs. - Kuruc Brigadiers Orban Czelder and Janos Pongracz returned and started to organiza a new Kuruc uprising in the Szepesseg. Their 1000 men army was scattered by the Habsburgs in Sept.


The Habsburgs forced the Hungarian National Assembly to declare II. Ferenc Rakoczi and Baron Bercsenyi as traitors in June. Forfeited Kuruc properties were awarded to foreigners who were declared Hungarian nobles.


VI. Charles agreed to an anti-Turkish alliance with the Doge of Venice on April 13. - A Habsburg-Hungarian army of 65,000 men led by Field Marshall Prince Jeno Savoyai set a camp at Futak in Bacs County on July 9. The army of Jeno Savoyai defeated Turkish Grand Vizier Ali and his 60,000 men army at Petervarad on Aug 5. Ali died in the battle. Savoyai's army crossed the Tisza River and laid a siege to the Temesvar Fortress on Sept 1. Temesvar was defended by Pasha Mustapha with 18,000 men. After a 6-week siege Pasha Mustapha surrendered Temesvar in exchange for the freedom of the defenders. With this victory the Turks were chased out all parts of Hungary and the Habsburgs took over 100% control. - Field Marshall Savoyai advanced and captured Panchova (Nov 10)and Ujpalanka (Nov 14) from the Turks. The Habsburg-Hungarian army from Erdely (Transylvania) led by Field Marshall Count Steinville entered the former Havasu territory and captured Bucharest from the Turks on Nov 25.


A newly organized Habsburg-Hungarian army of 100,000 men led by Field Marshall Prince Jeno Savoyai set a camp at Futak in Bacs County on May 21. Savoyai crossed the Danube and laid a siege to Nandorfehervar (Belgrad) on June 18. The defender was Pasha Mustapha with 30,000 men and 600 cannons. Turkish Grand Vizier Pasha Hadzhi Halil arrived to Nandorfehervar with a relief army. Savoyai defeated the Grand Vizier in a battle outside the city on Aug 16. The next day Pasha Mustapha surrendered Nandorfehervar to the Habsburgs. - Turkish allied Crimean Tatars entered Hungary by crossing the Radnai Pass. The Tatars pillaged Szatmar, Ugocsa, Bereg and Maramaros Counties before the local Hungarians scattered them in the Szamos Valley in Aug. - Kuruc Field Marshall Antal Esterhazy returned to Erdely with his army from Moldovia. Upon invitation from the Turkish Sultan II. Ferenc Rakoczi left France for Turkey. He arrived to Gallipoli on Oct 10. By this time Rakoczi's chance to renew his anti-Habsburg war on the side of the Turks passed. The Turks should have supported Rakoczi while he was controlling most of Hungary, during 1704-10.


Ferenc Rakoczi asked Turkish Sultan III. Ahmed in January to allow him to recruit a large army of Christian subjects of the Turkish Empire against the Habsburgs, but for unknown reasons the Sultan refused. - Peace talks between III. Karoly and III. Ahmed were started in June. They reached an agreement on July 21. The Turks agreed to withdraw their claim to most of the territories they lost during 1716-17, including the Temeskoz, Szeremseg, Nandorfehervar, and Northern parts of Serbia, Bosnia and Havasu. The Turks refused to give up Rakoczi and the Kurucs who took refuge in Turkey. - Repopulation of the Temeskoz was started, which lasted 15 years. The new settlers were Germans relocated from Lotharingia and Vlachs relocated from Havasu (Wallachia).


The Sultan relocated Rakoczi and his Kurucs from Drinapoly to Jenikoi in Asia-Minor. Later they were moved to Rodosto.


The French King ordered his Colonel, Hungarian origin, Count Laszlo Bercsenyi to recruit a Hussar army in the Turkish territory. Many former Kurucs and other Hungarians joined him.


King III. Karoly started censoring the books printed and/or sold in Hungary. - Peace talks between the Catholic and Protestant Churches were unsuccessful. While the Hungarians were mostly Protestant (Reformatus), the ruling Habsburgs were Catholic. - The 21-year Baltic War between Sweden, Russia, Denmark and Poland was finished with the Nystad Peace Agreement on Sep 10. - Slavs, later referred to as Slovaks were allowed to settle in Upper Hungary.


The Hungarian National Assembly accepted the Habsburgs request that in case of no Habsburg male heir, the throne will be passed on the female side. - The Habsburgs established the Austrian East India Society.


III. Karoly finally settled the differences of the Catholic and Protestant Churches. - The taxes of Hungary were 2.14 million gold.


III. Karoly established the Magyar Kiralyi Helytartotancs (Hungarian Royal Governing Council) in Jan. This order tried to reduce the frequency of the Hungarian National Assembly to 1 in 3 years.


The Habsburgs agreed to an alliance with Spain. They also agreed to promote the Austrian East India Society. As a response, England, France and Prussia formed their anti Spanish-Habsburg Alliance. Their purpose was to take Belgium from the Habsburgs and to eliminate the Austrian East India Society. Soon after, Holland joined the alliance.


German-Roman Emperor VI. Charles and Russian Tsarina I. Katherine agreed to an anti-Turkish alliance on Aug 26.


Prince Gyorgy Rakoczi, son of II. Ferenc Rakoczi escaped from Habsburg captivity in Vienna and joined his father in Rodosto in Turkey.


Several peaceful years followed, with the Habsburgs establishing more detailed control over Hungary.


III. Karoly revised the jurisdiction border between Erdely and the rest of Hungary.


Polish King II. Agost died, which triggered throne wars until 1735 in Poland.


III. Karoly allowed more freedom and rights for the Reformatus and Evangelical Churches.


II. Ferenc Rakoczi died in Rodosto in Turkey on April 8. - A peasant rebellion was started in Bekes County on April 27. They declared themselver Kuruc, followers of Rakoczi, and they grew to 1000 men. Serb Border Guard Captain Pero Szegedinac agreed to join them with his Serb army. The Habsburgs captured Captain Szegedinac and sent 10,000 Serbs against the small Kuruc army. The Serbs defeated the Kuruc army at Erdohegy on May 9. The remaining 500 rebels were scattered by the Habsburg fortress armies from Bihar and Varad at Telegd on May 13. About 150 rebels were captured, 18 of them, including Szegedinac were executed.


Habsburg Princess Maria Theresa married Toscanian Prince Franz Lotharing on Feb 12. - Turkish Sultan I. Mahmud declared war on Russian Tsarina Anna on May 2. - Jozsef Rakoczi, older son of II. Ferenc Rakoczi arrived in Rodosto to keep the exiled Kurucs organized.


III. Karoly, in alliance with the Russians sent a 120,000 Habsburg-Hungarian and a 50,000 Serbian-Croatian armies against the Turks. The huge army captured Nis on July 28, but they abandoned it on Oct 11. The reason was probably supply issues of the huge army. - Prince Jozsef Rakoczi and the exiled Kurucs went to Istambul to offer their help against the Habsburgs.


The Sultan declared Jozsef Rakoczi as Fejedelem of Hungary, promised his support and sent him to recruit his army. Jozsef Rakoczi sent his declaration to the throne to Hungary and promised to follow his father's footsteps to organize an anti-Habsburg uprising again. III. Karoly declared Rakoczi a traitor and put a bounty on his head. - A Turkish army led by Grand Vizier Mehmed pushed the Habsburgs out of Serbia in May. Mehmed captured the Orsova Fortress from the Habsburgs after a 1-month siege on Aug 15. The Habsburgs led by Field Marshall Count Joseph von Konigsegg pulled back into Nandorfehervar (Belgrad) on Sep 6. - Prince Jozsef Rakoczi suddenly died in Bulgaria on Nov 9, possibly poisoned by Habsburg agents. His rebellion organization fell apart.


Turkish Grand Vizier Hadzhi Mehmed defeated Habsburg Field Marshall Count Oliver Wallis at Grocka in Serbia on July 23. Wallis pulled back North and let the Turks lay a siege to Nandorfehervar on July 29. The Habsburgs and Turks signed a peace treaty, in which the Habsburgs gave up Nandorfehervar, Sabac, Serbia, Orsova and Havasu (Wallachia) to the Turks on Sep 1.


The Kuruc exiles returned to Rodosto in June. - III. Karoly died on Oct 20. His daughter, Queen Maria Theresa followed him on the Throne. She ruled until 1780. - Prussian King II. Frederick invaded Silezia on Dec 16, in exchange for his acceptace of Maria Theresa on the Habsburg Throne. The Austrian Throne Wars started.


Prussian King II. Frederick's army defeated Habsburg General Count Wilhelm Reinhard Neipperg's army at Mollwitz on April 10 and took Silezia. - During the National Assembly Maria Theresa awarded more rights, privileges and self governing to the Hungarians, obviously to win the Hungarian nobles' support for the Habsburgs against the Prussians. - Bavarian Prince Albert Charles, in alliance with France entered Upper Austria with his army in June. Albert Charles captured Passau on July 31 and Prague on Nov 26. The Czech nobles crowned Albert Charles as Czech King on Dec 29.


The German National Assembly elected Albert Charles as New German-Roman Emperor, VII. Charles. He ruled until 1745. - Austrian-Hungarian army of Maria Theresa captured Munich, capital of Bavaria, Home city of the newly elected Emperor, on Feb 12. Queen Maria Theresa and Prussian King II. Frederick agreed to a peace treaty, in which Silezia became part of Prussia. - The Austro-Hungarian army re-captured Prague on Dec 6. - The population of Hungary was about 5 million. 300,000 died in 5 years due to the black death. - The 1st FreeMason organization was recorded in Vienna.


The 1st target shooting association was established in Buda. - The Queen awarded special rights and privileges to the Serbs living in Hungary on April 18. - Maria Theresa was crowned Czech Queen on May 12. - The Erdely National Assembly was forced to give up their rights to elect a Fejedelem. - England, Holland and Sardine officially accepted Queen Maria Theresa on the Throne of the Habsburg Empire on Sep 13. - Field Marshall Count Karoly Batthyany was named governor of Bavaria on Dec 16.


A Hungarian army led by General Count Ferenc Nadasdy crossed the Rhein River and captured Lauterburg on July 1. - Prussian King II. Frederick invaded the Czech Land and captured Prague. The Queens army chased the Prussian King out of the Czech Land by the end of the year.


Field Marshall Count Karoly Batthyany defeated the Bavarian army led by Crown Prince III. Miksa at Pfaffenhofen on April 15. All of Bavaria fell under Habsburg rule. Maria Theresa and III. Miksa agreed to a peace treaty, in which III. Miksa accepted Maria Theresa on the Habsburg Throne. - Prussian King II. Frederick defeated the Austrian-Hungarian-Saxon army led by King Charles Lotharing at Hohenfriedberg in Silezia on June 4. - The German National Assembly elected King Charles Lotharing (Husband of Maria Theresa) to be new German-Roman Emperor. He ruled until 1765. - The Prussians defeated the Habsburgs at Soor in Czech Land on Sep 20. The Prussians and Habsburgs agreed to a peace and Prussia was allowed to keep Silezia.


Queen Maria Theresa and Russian Tsarina Elisabeth agreed to an anti-Prussian alliance on June 1.


The 8-year Habsburg Throne Wars ended with the Peace Treaty of Aachen on Oct 18. Maria Theresa gave up Silezia, Parma and Piacenza, but kept Belgium.


The 1st passenger transport system was established.


New Kuruc uprising was organized in the Hodmezovasarhely area. By June it became a full blown uprising. The local Habsburgs defeated the uprising and captured the leaders. The 3 leaders Gyorgy Bujdoso, Ferenc Peto and Pal Toro were tried and executed next year.


Queen Maria Theresa Established a new tariff system and a new tax system.


A rebellion broke out in Szlavonia. The peasants were led by Matei Kusic. The Sloven border guards joined them under the leadership of Captain Ljubojevic. The Habsburgs and the nobles united army defeated the 25,000 men rebel army in a bloody battle.


Queen Maria Theresa agreed to an alliance with French King XV. Louis on May 1 against Prussian King II. Frederick. - II. Frederick invaded Saxonia and captured Dresden on Aug 29. The Prussians defeated the Habsburgs at Lobositz on Oct 1, and entered the Czech Land.


The Habsburg army, aided by Hungarian Hussars led by General Count Ferenc Nadasdy defeated the Prussian army at Kolin on June 18. Lt. General Andras Hadik led 5000 Hussars behind the Prussian army, attacked and captured Berlin, capital of the Prussians on Oct 16. After pillaging the city, the Hussars rejoined General Nadasdy. - The Prussian army defeated the Habsburgs at Leuthen in Silezia on Dec 5.


The Austrian-Hungarian army defeated the Prussians at Hochkirch in Saxonia on Oct 14.


The Austrian-Hungarian army defeated the Prussians at Kunersdorf (Odera-Frankfurt) on Aug 13.


Vlach peasants living in Erdely, led by Sofronie, rebelled against the Greek Catholic Church. - Queen Maria Theresa established a 120 member Royal Guards stationed in Vienna, consisting of Hungarian Nobles on Sep 11.


A Habsburg Cavalry led by General Count Adolf Nicolaus Buccow defeated the rebelling Vlach peasants in Erdely. The rebel leader Sofronie escaped to Havasu (Wallachia). - General Buccow organized the border guards of South Erdely. 4000 Vlachs joined.


General Buccow organized the border guards of East Erdely, consisting of Hungarian Szeklers.


Queen Maria Theresa and Prussian King II. Frederick signed a peace treaty in Hubertusburg on Feb 15, ending the 7-year Habsburg-Prussian War. - Szeklers of Udvarhelyszek rebelled agains the forced border guard service. Some were imprisoned, others escaped to Moldovia. - Maria Theresa requested that the total number of border guards in Erdely shall be 15,000 men.


The Szeklers of Csik rebelled against the forced border guard recruiting and 2500 of them camped at Madefalva. Habsburg Lt. General Siskowicz attacked the Szeklers and killed most of them. This brutality initiated the Szeklers' large scale immigration into Moldovia.


Emperor I. Franz, husband of Maria Theresa died on Aug 18. Their son, II. Joseph became new Emperor.


Minor peasant rebellions broke out in 6 Western counties.


Queen Maria Theresa ordered the regulation of peasants' socage [robot]. - The Queen ordered censored books to be burned.


A new law book detailing the punishment of criminals was published by the Queen.


Areas in Szepes County, which were mortgaged by King Zsigmond to Poland in 1412, were taken back. - The 1st Serbian National Congress was held on May 4 in Karloca. - Farkas Kempelen, Secretary of the Hungarian Treasury, introduced his world-famous Chess Machine.


Maria Theresa gave full Hungarian citizenship and rights to the Serbs living in Hungary on June 21.


Habsburg Queen Maria Theresa, Prussian King II. Frederick and Russian Queen II. Katherine agreed to divide up Poland between themselves in Petrograd on Aug 5. The Habsburgs received Galicia (Halich) and Lodomeria, (70,000 sq.km, 3 million population).


The 1st reports of Gypsies were recorded in Hungary. The Queen ordered the Counties to settle the Gypsies. - Upon the Pope's order, the Queen dissolved the Jesuit Church. - During the last 10 years 200,000 Germans were settled in Hungary. - Hungary paid 11.5 million gold yearly taxes to the Habsburgs. - Statistics: Hungary had 502 cities/towns and 8240 villages.


The Habsburg army invaded Bukovina in Aug. [Bukovina is a small area of mixed ethnic people between Galicia and Moldovia, which changed hands numerous times in history.]


The Queen announced new social laws for the counties to take care of the poor, old and sick.


Queen Maria Theresa prohibited the torture and inquisition. - The independence of the USA was declared on July 4. - Trieste and Fiume was declared port cities of the Kingdom of Hungary on Aug 9. - The draining of swampland was started. - Street lights were installed in Pest.


Educational reforms were done, building of more schools and universities started.


Bavarian King Theodor Charles died. Both Habsburgs and Prussians claimed the Bavarian Throne and their inheritance war broke out on March 13. The Prussians invaded the Czech Land in April. This was referred to as the "Potato War". No major battles took place.


The Habsburgs and the Prussians agreed to a peace treaty in Teschen on May 13. The Habsburgs renounced their claim to the Bavarian Throne to the benefit of the Prussians. Prevously separated Serbian and Croatian territories were re-integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary.


Queen Maria Theresa died on Nov 29. His husband, King II. Joseph followed her on the Throne. He ruled until 1790.


II. Joseph ordered regulations of the 83,000 Jews within Hungary. It provided freedom of religion, schools, businesses and farming. They were ordered to take German names in hopes that they melt into society. The King gave more indepence to the non-Catholic Churches.


II. Joseph ordered the reunification of Hungary and Erdely (Transylvania). - Gypsies rebelled in Hont County, they went on pillaging, murdering and cannibalism. 42 of them were tried and executed.


II. Joseph changed the official language of Hungary to German from Hungarian. He gave 3 years for the local governments and schools to convert. Erdely (Transylvania) was integrated into Hungary.It was divided to 11 counties. The Saxons and Szeklers lost their privileges. - The Vlach peasants rebelled at Mesztak in Zarand County on Oct 31. Under the leadership of Nicolae Horea, Ion Closca and Gheorghe Crisan the rebellion spread to 5 counties and the rebels grew to 25,000 people. The peasants started to attack cities and pillaged towns and villages. II. Joseph ordered the army of Erdely against the rebels on Nov 21. Crisian's rebel army was defeated on Dec 7. Horeas and Closcas rebels were defeated at Topanfava in Feher County on Dec 31. The leaders were captured and executed by breaking them on a wheel.


The Hungarian-Austrian border was declared tariff-free. - II. Joseph eliminated the 52 counties in Hungary and replaced the with 13 provinces. Province capitals: Nyitra, Besztercebanya, Kassa, Munkacs, Nagyvarad, Temesvar, Pest, Gyor, Pecs, Zagrab, Nagyszeben, Kolozsvar and Fogaras. [Interesting that only 3 of the 13 capitals remained in Hungary after the country was butchered in 1919 in Trianon.] - II. Joseph freed all peasants from the nobles' rule. - The Freemasons operations were put under police inspections.


The peasants' tax payments from their produces were a 10th for the King and a 10th for the Church. - The King replaced the Death Sentences with Forced Labour sentences. - II. Joseph ordered the nationalization of religious schools in Habsburg controlled Belgium, which triggered bloody demonstrations there in Dec.


Habsburg King II. Joseph and Russian Tsarina II. Katerine agreed to an anti-Turkish alliance in Kerson in Ukraine on May 23. - The Turkish Sultan declared was on Russia on Aug 24. - Military draft was instituted in Hungary. - II. Joseph, in alliance with the Russians entered the War against the Turks. The Habsburgs laid an unsuccessful siege to Nandorfehervar (Belgrad) on Dec 2. - Census: Population of Hungary: 9,265,185. This included 1,440,986 in Erdely, 647,017 in Croatia and 709,353 in the Southern border area. Number of houses: 989,549 (Hungary, 82,933 (Croatia), 255,124 (Erdely). The largest city was Debrecen with 29,718 people. 21 cities had over 10,000 citizens. There were 61 Free Royal Cities, 665 towns and 15,050 villages. Within today's Hungarian border only 2,681,595 people lived.


King II. Joseph assembled a 200,000 men Austro-Hungarian army against the Turks at Futak in Bacs County on March 14. It was led by Field Marshall Count Franz Moritz Lacy. The Austro-Hungarian army captured Szabacs on April 24. - King II. Joseph ordered forced draft within Hungary without obtaining the approval of the National Assembly. The Hungarian nobles approached the Prussian King regarding their disapproval. - Turkish Grand Vizier Pasha Yusup started his counter attack with his army. He crossed the Danube at Vidin on Aug 7 and entered Hungary into the Temesi Bansag. - A Habsburg army, united wit a Russian army invaded Turkish ally Moldova and captured the Hotin Fortress on Sep 19. Pasha Yusup's army defeated the main Habsburg army at Lugos in Krasso County on Sep 20. - The Belgian nobles started an armed rebellion in Oct against II. Joseph's despotic laws there. - Farkas Kempelen invented the steam turbine.


The French Revolution started in France by the citizens who destroyed the Bastille on July 14. The French National Assembly abolished Feudalism and freed the peasants. They declared the basic rights and freedom of citizens. - The united Habsburg-Russian army defeated the Turks at Martinesti in Wallachia on Sep 22. - Due to countrywide poverty the Hungarian counties refused to provide more recruites and additional military tax to King II. Joseph. - The Austro-Hungarian army captured Nandorfehervar (Belgrad) after a month long siege on Oct 9. - The Belgian rebels captured Brussels from the Habsburgs on Dec 11.


The Belgian nobles declared Belgium's independence from the Habsburgs on Jan 10. - Prussian King II. Frederick William formed an anti-Habsburg alliance with Turkish Sultan III Selim on Jan 31. - Emperor-King II. Joseph died on Feb 20, His younger brother II. (Lipot) Leopold, Prince of Toscana, succeeded him on the Throne. - The Saint Crown of Hungary was finally returned to Buda from Vienna on Feb 21. - A new Hungarian Constitution was submitted to the National Assembly in March. Hungary, united with Erdely was declared independent from the Habsburg Throne, established a Senate consisting of Nobles. The Counties repealed all laws and regulations instituted by King II. Joseph. - A peasant rebellion broke out in Szabolcs County. - Latin was restored as the official language regarding government businesses. - The Hungarian language was restored for the Hungarian military. - In June the National Assembly declared Hungarian as official language, with Latin also accepted. - The Hungarian nobles offered Galicia to the Prussian King in exchange for Prussian military assistance to Hungary. - Habsburg King II. Leopold and Prussian King II. Frederick William agreed to a peace treaty in Reichenbach on July 27. The Habsburg army lined up at the Prussian border was transferred into Hungary. The nobles notifyed Leopold that they accept him as King if Hungary remains independent. - The border guards' Serb Assembly met in Temesvar and requested autonomy from the Habsburgs on Sep 9. - King II. Leopold and Sultan II. Selim signed a truce on Sep 29. - II. Leopold accepted the Constitution of Belgium on Oct 13. - II. Leopold was officially crowned King of Hungary in Pozsony on Nov 15. - The Habsburg troops recaptured all of Belgium in December.


II. Leopold accepted the independence of Hungary. He rejected the Serb and Vlach minorities' request for autonomy within Hungary on April 23. - Polish King II. Agost Sanislow and the nobles established the Polish Constitution on May 3. - II. Leopold and Sultan III. Selim signed a peace treaty in Sistov, Bulgaria on Aug 4, and the Habsburgs returned the territories captured during the recent wars.


The Russians and the Turks signed a peace treaty in Iasi in Moldovia on Jan 9. The Turks gave up all their territories East of the Dnyester River. - II. Leopold and Prussian King II. Frederick William agreed to an anti-French alliance on Feb 7. - German-Roman Emperor II. Leopold died on March 1. He was sucseeded by I. Franz on the Throne. - France unsuccessfully requested the new King I. Franz to cancel the Habsburg-Prussian alliance. France declared war on I. Franz on April 20. The French troops invaded the Habsburg held Belgium. The Austrian army defeated the French army in Belgium on April 30. The Prussians provided a 20,000 men army to the Habsburgs against the French on May 4. - Russian Tsarina II. Katherine sent an army into Poland on May 18. - I. Franz (I. Ferenc) was crowned King of Hungary on June 6. He was also crowned German-Roman Emperor as II. Franz on July 5. - The Russians won a decisive victory over the Polish army led by Tadeus Kosciusco at Dubienka in Poland on July 17. The Polish Constitution was rejected and the Russians took control of Poland on July 23. - The citizens of Paris captured King XVI. Louie and family on Aug 10. The united Habburg-Prussian army with 80,000 men entered France on Aug 19. French General Dumouriez stopped the advancing Habsburg-Prussian army at Valmy on Sep 20. The French Republic was declared on Sep 22. The French revolutionary army led by General Custine captured Mainz and crossed the Rhein River into Germany. French General Dumouirez defeated the Habsburgs at Jemmapes in Belgium and put Belgium under French control on Nov 6.


French King XVI Louie was executed in Paris on Jan 21. - Russian Tsarina II. Katalin and Prussian King II. Frederick William agreed to divide Poland between themselves on Jan 23. - The Jacobinus Pary took over governing France on June 2. - An anti-French alliance was created by Austria, Prussia, England, Spain and Sardine on Aug 30.


Widespread protests were organized in Hungary against I. Franz's incresing censorship. - Rebellion broke out in Poland with the leadership of Tadeus Kosciusco against the Russians in March. The Russians pulled out of Warsaw on April 29. - Scattered secret anti-Habsburg organizations were started in Hungary. - French General Jourdan defeated Habsburg General Prince Joshua Koburg in the Fleurus Battle in Belgium on June 26. The French army captured Antwerp on July 28. The Jacobinus Party was overthrown in Paris. - Due to the growing independence movement in Hungary, the Habsburgs moved a large army into Hungary in Aug. The Habsburgs captured the leaders of the Hungarian Jacobinus movement. - Russian General Count Suvorov defeated Kosciusco's Polish rebels at Maciejowice on Oct 10. The rebel leaders, including Kosciusco were captured. Suvorov captured Warsaw on Nov 6. - 42 captured leaders of the Hungarian Jacobinus Party were put on trial in Dec. Twelve of them were executed at Vermezo next year.


King I. Franz and Russian Tsarina II. Katherine agreed to further divide Poland on Jan 3. The Habsburgs received West Galicia and the Cracow area. - France and Prussia agreed to a peace treaty in Basel on April 6. - England gave 4.6 million pounds to the Habsburgs to maintain a 200,000 men army against France on May 20. - Tsarina Katherine joined the anti-France coalition on Sep 28. - The French National Convent declared Belgium to be part of France on Oct 1. - Polish King II Agost Sanislow renounced his throne and the existence of Poland ended on Nov 25.


France organized and sent 3 armies against the Habsburgs in March: General Moreau at the Rhine, General Jourdan at Sambre and General Bonaparte in Italy. Bonaparte broke through the line held by Habsburg General Baron Beaulieu at Montenotte, Millessimo and Dego during April 12-14. Bonaparte entered Milano on May 14 and defeated General Beaulieu again at Berghetto on May 30. Bonaparte defeated Habsburg General Count Dagobert Siegmund Wurmser at Castiglione on Aug 5 and again at Bassano on Sep 8. - Habsburg Crown Prince Karl defeated French General Moreau at the Rhine on Sep 20. - I. Frans ordered 50,000 men and 5 million gold worth of supplies from Hungary for his anti-French war. - Bonaparte defeated Habsburg General Baron Joseph Alvinczy at Arcole on Nov 17.


General Bonaparte defeated General Alvinczy at Rivoli on Jan 12. - The Mantova Fortress defended by Habsburg General Wurmser surrendered to Bonaparte on Feb 2. Bonaparte reached Leoben on April 7. Bonaparte and Habsburg General Merveldt agreed to a truce in Leoben on April 18. I. Franz renounced his claim to the Belgian Throne and gave up Illyria and Dalmatia to France. Austria and France exchanged their prisoners of war, except for 10,000 Hungarians who were taken to Ceuta and other French colonies as slaves.


French General Bonaparte left Toulon for his Egyptian Campaign on May 19. - Habsburg King I. Franz greatly expanded censorship in the Empire. - English King III. George and Russian Tsar I. Pavel agreed to an anti-France alliance on Dec 29.


King I. Franz allowed the Russian army led by Prince Alexandr Vasilievich Suvorov to cross the Habsburg Empire en route against France. As retaliation France declared war on the Habsburgs on March 1. Habsburg General Archduke Karl led a 100,000 men army against French General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan. The Habsburgs were victorious at Stockach in Bavaria on March 25 and pushed the French back to the left side of the Rhine River. The Russian army reached Northern Italy held by the French. General Suvorov united his army with Habsburg Lt. General Pal Kray and defeated the French army at Cassano on April 27 and entered Milano. The Russian-Habsburg army defeated French General Macdonald at Trebbia in a large 3-day war on June 17-19. The Mantova Fortress surrendered to Suvorov on July 28. The Russian-Habsburg army defeated the French at Novi on Aug 15. All French troops left Northern Italy. - French General Andre Massena defeated Habsburg Archduke Karl at Limma in Switzerland on Sep 23 and ctured Zurich. The Russian army led by Suvorov came to the help of Karl, but their united army was defeated by General Massena at Zurich on Sep 25-26. Russian Tsar I. Pavel ordered his army to return home. - French General Bonaparte returned from his Egypt Campaign. He overthrew the ruling Directorium, instituted a new Constitution on Dec 13. Bonaparte became 1st Consul of France.


Bonaparte crossed the Alps with 28,000 men and defeated the 31,000 men Habsburg army at Marengo on June 14. Northern Italy fell into French hands again. - England paid 2 million Pounds to I. Franz to continue his war against the French. - French General Jean-Victor Moreau defeated Habsburg Archduke Johann at Hohenlinden in Bavaria on Dec 3. The Habsburgs and France agreed to a truce on Dec 25.


France and Austria agreed to a peace treaty in Luneville on Feb 9. King I. Franz gave Belgium and Lomardy to France. He agreed to the formation of new republics, Holland, Switzerland and Italy. I Franz received Dalmatia and Venice. - I. Franz created the new Censor Police (Polizei Zensur Hofstelle) on Sep 12.


England and France signed a peace treaty in Amiens on March 27. England gave back most of their recently captured colonies to France, Spain and Holland. - The Hungarian National Assembly agreed to maintain a 64,000 men army. - Count Gyorgy Festetics started a foundation to establish the Hungarian Military Academy. Count Ferenc Szechenyi donated his collection and library, which helped establishing the Hungarian National Museum and the Szechenyi Library.


England declared war on France on May 16.


The French Senate declared Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor of France on May 18. - Statistics: Habsburg Empire ruled 23 million people. 45% of that was Hungary with 10,472,000 people. It consisted of 340,000 nobles, 16,000 priests, 164,000 military, 7,555,920 citizens and peasants, 1,613,000 people in Erdely and 784,000 in the border guard area (Vlachs, Serbs, Croats and Slovenes).


England and Russia agreed to a new anti-French alliance in April. The Habsburgs joined the alliance in Aug. The Habsburg army led by General Karl Mack entered French controlled Bavaria on Sep 11. Napoleon's army surrounded General Mack in Ulm. General Mack surrendered on Oct 17. - The English Navy led by Admiral Horatio Nelson destroyed the united French-Spanish Navies at Trafalgar on Oct 21. - Archduke Karl pulled his army back to Austria from Northern Italy. Russian Tsar I. Alexander's army reached the Czech Land in route to France in Oct. - Prussian King III. Frederick William agreed to provide a 180,000 men army to the anti-France alliance in Nov. - Napoleon's army entered Vienna on Nov 13. The Russian army led by Mihail Illarionovich Kutuzov stationed in Moravia. Napoleon devastated the united Russian-Habsburg army at Austerlitz on Dec 2. Napoleon and I. Franz signed a peace treaty. I. Franz gave up Venice, Dalmatia, Istrya, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Swabia and Baden. He accepted the independence of Italy, Bavaria and Wurtemberg. - I. Franz ordered the freshly recruited Hungarian noble army to disperse. He was afraid of another Hungarian independence war.


16 South German territories under French influence seceded from the German-Roman Empire and formed the Rhein Alliance in July. Emperor II. Franz renounced his crown as Emperor, effectively ended the 1006 year old German-Roman Empire. - French Emperor I. Napoleon defeated the Prussians in a dual battle at Jena and Auerstedt on Oct 14. - Napoleon ordered the European countries to boycott any commerce with England.


Napoleon fought a 2-day decisionless battle against the Russian army at Eyalu in Prussia on Feb 7-8. - Serb rebels captured Nandorfehervar (Belgrad) from the Turks on March 8. - Napoleon defeated the Russian army at Friedland in East Prussia on June 17. Napoleon and Russian Tsar I. Alexander agreed to a peace treaty in Tilsit on July 7. Prussian King III. Frederick William signed the peace treaty 2 days later. Former Polish territories were taken from Prussia and the Warsaw Princedom was created by Napoleon.


French Emperor I. Napoleon and Russian Tsar I Alexander formed an alliance in Erfurt on Oct 12.


Habsburg King I. Ferenc declared war on Napoleon. Habsburg Crown Prince Karl led a 200,000 army, crossed the Inn River and invaded French allied Bavaria on April 10. Napoleon defeated Prince Karl at Eggmuhl in Bavaria on April 22. The Habsburg army pulled back to Moravia. Napoleon captured Vienna on May 13. King I. Ferenc and his court escaped to Tata in Hungary. - Napoleon entered Hungary at Pozsony. Napoleon called upon the Hungarian nobles to rise up, declare independence and elect a Hungarian king. The nobles were not enthusiastic, probably due to previous unkept French alliance promises. - Prince Karl defeated Napoleon at Aspern in Lower Austria on May 21-22. - Governor of French allied Italy, Eugene Beauharnais defeated the Habsburgs forces led by Crown Prince Johann in Northern Italy in June. Prince Johann escaped into Hungary. Beauharnais and French Field Marshall Jacques Macdonald united their armies at Papa. Prince Johann's 18,000 Habsburg army was joined by 21,000 poorly equipped Hungarian nobles on June 11. The 35,000 men French army defeated Prince Johann's army at Gyor on June 14, they captured Gyor on June 24 and Pozsony on June 26. - Napoleon soundly defeated Prince Karl at Wagram in Lower Austria on July 5-6. Napoleon and the Habsburgs agreed to a truce in Znaim in Moravia on July 12, and signed a peace treaty on Oct 14. The Habsburgs gave Kraina, Triest, Karinthia and Illyria to the French, they gave former Polish territories to the Warsaw Princedom, they gave Salzburg and Inn to Bavaria, paid 25 million ransom and limited their army to 120,000.


Inflation was raging in the Habsburg Empire. - Napoleon married Habsburg Princess Maria Luisa, daughter of I. Ferenc on April 2.


Russian Tsar I. Alexander offered Wallachia and Moldovia to the Habsburgs to form an anti-French alliance, but I. Ferenc refused. - The Habsburgs removed all gold, silver and copper monies and paper money was devalued to 1/5 to manage inflation. The inflation worst hit the Hungarian part of the Empire. I. Ferenc refused to consider anything offered or asked by the Hungarian National Assembly. The Hungarians pressed the Habsburgs to restore metal money and eliminate paper money. They also pushed for the wide scale official use of the Hungarian language. Habsburg Chancellor Count Metternich proposed to take away the independence of Hungary and to abolish the Constitution of Hungary.


Chancellor Metternich proposed to I. Ferenc to invade Hungary during the imminent French-Russian War. - France and Prussia agreed to an alliance on Feb 23. The Prussians agreed to supply the French army on its way to Russia, plus to provide 20,000 men. The Habsburgs also provided 30,000 men to aid France. - Russian Tsar I. Alexander and Swedish Crown PrinceJean-Baptiste Bernadotte made an alliance on April 9. In exchange for Swedish military help, Russia gave Norway to Sweden. - Russia and Turkey signed a peace treaty in Bucuresti on May 28. The Turks gave up the Prut River area to Russia, they gave autonomy to Serbia in exchange for the Russian push to end the Serbian rebellion. - Russia and the Habsburgs made a secret agreement that they do not consider each other enemies and the Habsburgs will limit their support to France. The 30,000 men Habsburg army was led by Field Marshall Prince Karl Schwarzenberg, at the right wing of Napoleon. Napoleon's main French army consisted of 480,000 men. They entered Russia by crossing the Niemen River on June 24. Napoleon defeated a Russian army at Smolensk on Aug 17. Napoleon and Russian Field Marshall Mihail Illarionovich Kutuzov fought an indecisive battle at Borogino on Sep 7. Napoleon captured Moscow on Sep 14. Due to the approaching Winter and serious supply issues Napoleon decided to leave Moscow on Oct 19. The Russian Winter took a huge toll on the marching French army. The united Russian army caught the French crossing the Berezina River, and destroyed most of them in a 3-day battle on Nov 26-28. The Prussians and Russians agreed to a peace on Dec 30.


The Schwarzenberg led Habsburg army abandoned Napoleon and made peace with the Russians on Jan 30. The Russian army captured Warsaw on Feb 9. - Russian Tsar I. Alexander and Prussian King III. Frederick William formed an anti-French alliance in Kalis on Feb 28. III. Frederick declared war on France on Mar 16. Napoleon and the advancing Russians and Prussians signed a truce on June 4. England joined the Russian-Prussian alliance on June 15. The Habsburgs joined the anti-France alliance and declared war on Napoleon on Aug 12. Napoleon defeated the Schwarzeberg led Habsburg army at Dresden on Aug 26-27. The retreating Habsburgs defeated French General Dominique Vandamme at Toplitz in Czech Lands. on Aug 30. - Austria and Bavaria agreed to an alliance on Oct 8. - Te multi-nation army grew to 330,000 men and defeated Napoleon's 160,000 men in the 4-day Leipzig Battle on Oct 16-19. The retreating Napoleon defeated a Habsburg army at Hanau (Hessen) on Oct 30. Napoleon pulled back to the French side Rhine River on Nov 4. - Wurtemberg, and later Baden joined the anti-French alliance. - The Serbian rebellion was finally defeated by the Turks. Their leader Karaghorghe escaped to Hungary. - The Habsburg army led by Schwarzenberg crossed the Rhine River into France on Dec 21.


Allied peace talks with the French were unsuccessful in Feb. Austrian and Prussian troops captured Paris on March 30. The French Senate dethroned Emperor I. Napoleon on April 2. The Senate declared Napoleon's son, XVIII. Louie Bourbon to be new King of France. The Fontaineblau agreement forced I. Napoleon to the Elba Island, and his wife Maria Luisa kept Parma. France lost all territories they gained since 1792.


The winning countries decided to redraw the maps of Europe. Poland was cut into pieces again. The Habsburgs got Galicia and Cracow. - I. Napoleon returned to France on March 1 and started to raise a new army. The allies - King of Naples, Joachim Murat declared the unity and independence of Italy on March 15. - Milos Obrenovich organized a new anti-Turk rebellion in Serbia on April 20. - The Habsburgs sent an army against the newly independent Italy and defeated King Murat at Tolentino on May 2. - The German Kingdoms formed the German Alliance on June 8. They stayed semi independent, the control of the Alliance was based on their individual sizes, which assured the rule of the Habsburgs and Prusians. - The Habsburgs got back the control of Istrya, Trieste, South Tirol, Karinthia, Salzburg, Vorarlberg, Lombardi and Venice. - The allied army led by English General Prince Arthur Wellington scored a decisive victory over I. Napoleon at Waterloo on June 18. Napoleon renounced his crown. The 1792 French border was restored. During the last 23 years of French wars Hungary itself lost 350,000 men taken as soldiers for the Habsburgs. - The Serbian rebels and the Turks agreed to a peace treaty. The Serbs received partial autonomy in Dec.


The Habsburgs continued their paper money manipulations, including the formation of the Austrian National Bank. - Due to countrywide poor crops 50,000 people died of starvation in 4 counties in Hungary.


Technological advancements: Gas street lights were installed in Pest. Steam boats travelled between Pest and Komarom. - The Serb National Assembly declared Milos Obrenovics to be their King on Nov 6.


The allied occupation of France was ended in Nov.


The German Alliance initiated an overwhelming censorship, especially against college and university student organizations.


A revolution broke out in Spain on Jan 1. - I. Ferenc expanded the censorship to the imprtation of liberal written materials. - A revolution broke out in Naples on July 3.


The Habsburgs sent an army against the revolutionaries in Naples in May. Hungary was ordered to supply 90,000 men to the Habsburgs.


The Greeks rebelled against the Turks and declared their independence on Jan 27. - The bloodsucking Habsburgs ordered the Hungarians to pay taxes in silver, not with the worthless paper money. King I. Ferenc made more and more dictator-like decisions completely bypassing the Hungarian National Assembly. The national opposition at the counties level started to take place. - France was ordered by the Alliance to break down the Spanish Revolution by military force.


Ferenc Kolcsey wrote the Himnusz (Hymn) on Jan 22, which became the National Anthem of Hungary, and stayed so ever since. - Habsburg loyalists started to use force to break down the county level rebellion. - Forced draft was instituted.


The Adriatic seaport city of Fiume was reattached to Hungary.


The Hungarian National Assembly established county level assemblies to pre-discuss the issues on the county level 1st. - The Guards of Petrograd organized a rebellion against the new Russian Tsar I. Nicholas on Dec 26.


Turkey and Russia made an agreement in Akkerman, Bessarabia on Oct 7. The Rights of Russia to the Black See was established, Serbia's autonomy was accepted, The Vajdas of Havasu and Moldovia were to be elected every 7 years. - 94,500 master tradesmen operated in Hungary.


The united English-French-Russian flottilla defeated the Turkish flottilla at Navarino on Oct 20. - Anyos Jedlik invented an electro-magnetic motor.


Statistics: The population of Hungary (not including Erdely and Croatia) were 9.8 million. Religious breakdown: Roman and Greek Catholic 60.4%, Greek Orthodox 11.6%, Reformatus and Evangelical 25.7% and Jewish 2.3%. Hungary contained 51 cities, 686 towns, 9117 villages and 2846 puszta (nomadic settlements). - 6.8% of the people lived in cities, 22.2% in towns, 66.6% in villages and 2.6% on the pusztas.


Russia and Turkey signed a peace treaty in Drinapoly on Sep 14. The independece of Greece was accepted, Autonomy of Serbia, Wallachia and Moldova was accepted and Russia's territory was extended South to the Danube Delta.


A revolution broke out in Paris. French King X. Charles was replaced by the Prince of Orleans, Louie Phillip on July 28. - A revolution broke out in Brussels on Aug 25. They demanded an independent Belgium (from France). The Belgians declared their independence on Oct 14. - A steam ship rute was established between Pest and Vienna on Sep 4. - The Poles of Warsaw rebelled against the tyranny of Russian Tsar I. Nicholas on Nov 29. - King I. Ferenc finally agreed alow the use of Hungarian in all official communications, court orders and laws written.


Opposition against the forced military draft increased at the counties level. - The Upper Hungarian nobles requested King I. Ferenc to provide military help to the freedom fighters in Poland on May 3. - Russian General Count Ivan Raskovich won a decisive battle over the Polish freedom fighters at Ostrolenka on Maj 26. - Cholera epidemic from Poland hit Upper Hungary. Rebellions broke out within the quarantined areas in July. Military force was used to bring a bloody end to the rebelling students in Pest and rebelling peasants in Zemplen and Saros counties. - The Russians captured Warsaw from the Polish rebels on Sep 8.


Lajos Kossuth started his National Assembly Report paper.


The Habsburgs and the Russians formed an alliance in Munchengratz regarding the future split up of the Turkish Empire. - Count Istvan Szechenyi write new reform, which were published through Leipzig to avoid Habsburg censorship.


Baron Miklos Wesselenyi became the leader of the opposition movement.


Baron Wesselenyi provided the censored National Assembly records to the Erdely Assembly on Jan 29. - Habsburg Prince Ferdinand Estei took over governing Erdely on Feb 7. He suspended the Constitution and forced all opposition politicians to resign. Baron Wesselenyi was taken to court for treachery on Feb 25. - Habsburg King I. Ferenc died on March 2. His son, V. Ferdinand followed him on the throne. He ruled until 1848. - The Lower Board of the National Assembly declared their support for Wesselenyi, but the Upper Board did not. King V. Ferdinand ordered the establishment of the StateConference. Its members were Crown Prince Louie, Crown Prince Franz Karl, Chancellor Prince Clemens Metternich and State Minister Count Franz Anton Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky.


3 young opposition members of the National Assembly were arrested and charged with treachery. - Kossuth's reports were censored and banned, but he refused to stop his activities.


Countrywide protests against the "treachery charges" were organized. - Lajos Kossuth was arrested on May 5.


Steam boat service was expanded to the Szava River.


Both Wesselenyi and Kossuth was punished with a 3-year jail sentence. - Postal service was monopolized. - The National Assembly continued the push for freedom of speech. - 680,000 nobles lived in Hungary in 135,000 families. - 117,000 master tradesmen operated in Hungary.


In May King V. Ferdinand freed the political prisoners charged with treachery.


Lajos Kossuth started his by-weekly political magazine, the Pesti Hirlap on Jan 2. - Counts Istvan Szechenyi and Aurel Dessewffy started a conservative political alliance against Kossuth and his followers. - The Liberals formed the Nemzeti Kor in Pest.


The Croatian National Party won the majority in Croatia. Kossuth and the Liberals supported the idea of Croatian independence. - The construction of the famous Lanchid (Chain Bridge) was started between Pest and Buda.


Baron Miklos Wesselenyi warned about the danger of the growing Pan-Slav movement to Hungary. - The Hungarian National Assembly declared Hungarian to be the official language of all official businesses, and all officials must be able to talk Hungarian. Croatia may use Latin. - Alexander Karageorgevich was elected to be King of Serbia on June 27. - The Croatian National Party started an armed fight against the Hungarian-Croat Party in Zagrab.


The National Assembly voted to allow non-nobles to hold official positions.


The Hungarian Party took majority over the Croatians in Zagrab County. The Croatian Party members started an armed rebellion, which was defeated by the army causing 17 deaths. The Croatian National Assembly voted to establish a list of nobles who has the right to vote.


Polish National Uprising broke out in Cracow, Poland on Feb 22. Peasant rebellion broke out in Galicia on Feb 24. - Young writers and poets formed their club named the "Tizek Tarsasaga" led by Sandor Petofi. - 1st railroad service was opened between Pest and Vac on July 15. - Major regulation of the Tisza River was started. - Steam ship service was started on the Lake Balaton. - Statistics: Population of Royal Hungary 12,033,399. From that 2,085,640 lived in Erdely. Population of Pest was 110,000.


The Opposition Council led by Lajos Kossuth accepted the Ferenc Deak written Declaration. (Major points: Independent representative government, freeing the peasants, equal rights and taxation, public representation for all, free elections.) - The Erdely (Transylvanian) National Assembly voted for the wide range use of the Hungarian language in all official business, laws, rules, regulations and correspondence. - 1st telegraphic service was established between Vienna and Pozsony.


A revolution broke out in Palermo, Italy on Jan 12, and in Naples, Italy on Jan 27. - A revolution broke out in Paris, France on Feb 24. - Kossuth's proposal for independent parliamental government and reforms were accepted by the National Assembly on March 3. - A revolution was started in Munich, Bavaria on March 4. - A revolution broke out in Vienna on March 13. Chancellor Clemens Metternich resigned and escaped to London. - King I. Ferdinand quickly promised a new Hungarian Constitution and complete freedom of speech. - Revolution broke out in Pest on March 15. Petofi's poem "Talpra Magyar!" (On Your Feet Hungarian!") was published. The establishment of the Hungarian National Guard was decided, the recruiting started on March 16. King I. Ferdinand agreed to accept the independent Hungarian Government. He ordered Nador Prince Istvan with the organization. Nador Istvan named Count Lajos Batthyany as Prime Minister. - Revolution broke out in Milano, Italy and Berlin, Prussia on March 18 and in Venice on March 22. - The King named Count Franz Anton Kolowrat to be Prime Minister of Austria. - Karl Arbert, King of Sardine declared war on the Habsburgs and provided military help to the Lombardian revolutionaries on March 23. - King I. Ferdinand named Baron Josip Jellacic to be Ban of Croatia. - The Croatian National Council requested the unification of Croatia, Slovenia, Dalmatia and the Border Guard Territories, with a Crotian government and language established. - Serbs, Slovaks and Vlachs also started their own nationalistic movements. King I. Ferdinand refused to grant any independence related requests. - New demonstrations in Pest requested complete independence on March 28. The newly assembled Hungarian Government moved from Pozsony to the capital, Pest. - Croatian Ban Jellacic ordered to stop all communications with the Hungarian Gov't. He stood his ground even after the King ordered him to comply with the Hungarian Gov't. - The Serb Congress in Karloca elected Colonel Stevan Supljikac to be Vajda of the Serbian controlled territory in Hungary on May 15. - The revolution in Naples was defeated on May 15. - Due to the spreading Vienna revolution, the King's Court was moved to Innsbruck on May 17. - The Hungarian revolutionaries in Erdely asked the Vlach minority to join the Hungarians against the Habsburgs. - The union of Hungary and Erdely was finalized on May 29. - I. Ferdinand removed Croatian Ban Jellacic from his position. - The Czechs started a revolution in Prague on June 12. - The Serbs started a military uprising in the Karloca area against the Hungarians. - Habsburg General Prince Alfred Windishgratz defeated the Prague uprising by military force on June 16. - New Hungarian money (Forint) was established by Finance Minister Kossuth. - The King rejected the Serbs independence request. - A Proletar Revolution broke out in Paris on June 23. It was defeated 3 days later. - The Croatian Assembly promoted Jellacic to be a Dictator on June 29. - A small Hungarian army laid a siege to the Serbs stronghold, Szenttamas in Bacs County on July 14. - Habsburg Field Marshal Count Josef Radetzky defeated Sardinian King Karl Albert in a 3-day battle at Custozza in Northern Italy on July 25. The Habsburgs captured Milano on Aug 6. - Hungarian Prime Minister Batthyany and Croatian Jellacic agreed to a truce at the Drava River. - The 1st Hungarian Warship, the "Meszaros" was built. - The Ministers' Council agreed to accept the autonomy of Croatia. - Jellacic captured the Hungarian port city of Fiume on Aug 31. - Colonel Erno Kiss captured the Perlasz Camp of the Szerb rebels on Sep 2. - Croatian Jellacic crossed the Drava River with 35,000 men at Varasd on Sep 11. - Prime Minister Batthyany declared the resignation of the Hungarian Government. Nador Istvan and Batthyany formed the Hungarian Home Defense Council (Orszagos Honvedelmi Bizottmany) on Sep 16. - A Slovakian and Moravian army invaded Upper Hungary from Moravia on Sep 17. - Hungarian revolutionaries of Nagykanizsa destroyed a smaller Jellacic Croatian amry on Sep 18. - Habsburg General Karl Roth, in alliance with Jellacic, crossed the Drava River with 9000 men into the Dunantul on Sep 21. - Lajos Kossuth recalled all Hungarian soldiers serving in the Habsburg armies throughout the Empire. - Jellacic captured Szekesfehervar on Sep 26. - The King, overstepping the Hungarian Gov't, named Field Marshall Count Franz Philipp Lamberg as Supreme Commander of all Hungarian Military forces. The Government declared his nomination unlawful. Lamberg was executed by the citizens of Pest on Sep 28. - The invading Moravian-Slovak army was chased out of Upper Hungary. The Hungarian army defeated Jellacic's Croat army at Pakozd in Fejer County on Sep 29. Jellacic escaped with his army towards Vienna. Hungarian Lt. General Janos Moga took chase of Jellacic. The citizens of Szekesfehervar destroyed the army left behind by Jellacic. - Rebellion broke out in Vienna again. The rebels hanged Military Minister Count Latour on Oct 6. The King's Court escaped to Olmutz. - Habsburg General Karl Roth capitulated to Colonel Mor Percel at Ozora in Tolna County on Oct 7. - Major Janos Damjanich defeated the Serb rebels at Torokbecs in Torontal County on Oct 13. General Mor Perczel chased out the Habsburgs from the Murakoz on Oct 18. - The Hungarian Gov't agreed to provide military help to the Austrian revolutionaries in Vienna. Habsburg General Windischgratz defeated the Hungarian army at Schwecht on Oct 30. The Hungarians pulled back to the border. Windischgratz entered Vienna and defeated the revolutionaries. - General Mor Perczel entered Styria and defeated the Habsburg army at Friedau on Nov 9. - Habsburg Lt. General Baron Anton Puchner captured Kolozsvar on Nov 17. During the Szeklers' Assembly in Sepsiszentgyorgy, the Szeklers declared the military uprising against the Habsburgs. - A Polish Legion was formed in Hungary under the leadership of Major Jozef Wysocki on Nov 18. Kossuth named Polish General Jozef Bem to be Supreme Commander of the East Hungarian forces. - The Szeklers defeated Habsburg General Heydte at Hidveg in Marosszek on Nov 29. This was the 1st battle where Aron Gabor's famous cannons were used. - I. Ferdinand renounced his Throne on Dec 2. I. Franz Jozef was named new King. - The Moravian Slovaks invaded Upper Hungary again on Dec 4. - Habsburg Lt. General Franz von Schlik attacked Hungary from Galicia through the Duklai Pass on Dec 6. Schlik captured Kassa on Dec 11. - The Hungarians defeated and chased away the Moravian Slovaks at Budetin in Trencsen County on Dec 11. - England refused to accept the independence of Hungary. - Windischgratz entered Hungary on Dec 13. - I. Franz Jozef promised autonomies to the natonalities fighting against the Hungarians. - Habsburg General Baron Balthasar Simunich defeated Hungarian Colonel Richard Guyon at Nagyszombat on Dec 16. General Bem defeated Habsburg Field Marshal Puchner at Csucsa in Kolozs County on Dec 18. - The Italian Piemont Gov't was the 1st accepting the independent Hungary. - General Bem retook Kolozsvar from the Habsburgs on Dec 21. - Windischgratz captured Gyor on Dec 27. - Vajda Stevan Supljikac, the leader of the Serb rebels died. - Colonel Gyorgy Klapka pulled back his army from the advancing Habsburg Schlik to Miskolc. - Jellacic and Windischgratz defeated General Mor Perczel at Mor on Dec 30. Mor Perczel and General Gorgey united their armies at Buda. The Hungarian Gov't was moved from Pest to Debrecen.


The Council decided not to defend Pest. General Gorgey moved to Vac. General Perczel moved to Szolnok. General Bem defeated Habsburg Colonel Karl Urban at Tihuca in Doboka County on Jan 3. - Windischgratz marched into Pest on Jan 5. - General Kuzman Todorovic became the new leader of the Serb rebels. - Count Lajos Batthyany was captured in Pest. - Vlach rebels destroyed a highschool in Nagyenyed. - General Gorgey did not follow orders to relieve Komarom and Lipotvar. - The gun factory of Pest was moved and set up in Nagyvarad. - Habsburg General Baron Franz Ottinger captured Szolnok on Jan 13. - General Bem freed Marosvasarhely. - General Damjanich cleared the Temeskoz. - General Bem soundly defeated Field Marshal Puchner at Galfalva in Kukullo County on Jan 17. - Hungarian General Count Sandor Esterhazy refused to fight the Habsburgs in Bacska. He was replaced by General Count Karoly Vecsey. - General Bem laid an unsuccessful siege to Nagyszeben. General Mor Perczel defeated Ottinger and recaptured Szolnok on Jan 22. Habsburg Schlik defeated Colonel Klapka at Tarcal in Zemplen County. - General Gorgey captured Besztercebanya on Jan 24. - General Bem defeated the Habsburgs at Szelindek. - Habsburg Puchner asked the Russian army stationed in Wallachia for help against the Hungarians. - General Perczel captured Irsa in Pest county. - A small Ukrainian minority requested their area to be attached to Galicia. - Colonel Klapka defeated Habsburg Schlik at Tokaj on Jan 31. - The Russians sent 2000 men to help Habsburg Puchner on Feb 1. - Habsburg Lt. General Simunich finally captured Lipotvar in Nyitra County on Feb 2. - The united Habsburg-Russian forces defeated General Bem at Vizakna on Feb 4. - Colonel Richard Guyon defeated Habsburg Schlik at the Branyiszlo Pass in Szepes County on Feb 5. Colonel Karl Urban broke into Hungary from Bukovina on Feb 6. General Bem defeated the Habsburg-Russian army at Pisk in Hunyad County on Feb 9. Habsburg Lt. General Schlik abandoned Kassa. Gorgey and Klapka entered Kassa on Feb 10. - The peasants of Pest County rebelled against the Habsburgs on Feb 11. - General Gorgey was replaced by Lt. General Dembinski on Feb 14. - Eszek in Veroce County capitulated to the Habsburgs. - General Bem defeated and chased away Colonel Karl Urban again on Feb 26. - Windischgratz defeated Dembinski in a 2-day battle at Kapolna in Heves County on Feb 26-27. - Puchner pushed back General Bem at the Medgyes battle on March 2-3. - Gorgey was restored into his General position. - Generals Damjanich and Vecsey destroyed the Habsburgs stationing at Szolnok on March 5. - General Bem captured Nagyszeben, the Habsburg stronghold. Jozsa Oroszhegyi and his free army captured Losonc from the Habsburgs on March 15. Habsburg Lt. General Puchner and the Russians cleared out of Hungary on March 20. - Sardinian King Karl Albert started a new war against the Habsburgs in order to free Lombardia. The Habsburgs defeated him again in the Novara Battle on March 23. - General Perczel relieved Petervarad from the Serb siege on March 27. Hungarian Colonel Sandor Gaspar defeated Lt. General Schlik at the Hatvan Battle. - General Perczel captured Szenttamas, the stronghold of the Serbs in Bacs County on April 3. - Klapka and Damjanich defeated Jellacic at Tapiobicske on April 4. The Hungarian armies decisively defeated Windischgratz's main army at Isaszeg on April 6. Windischgratz pulled back to Pest. Damjanich and Klapka caught and destroyed a Habsburg army led by General Christian Gotz at Vac on April 10. - I. Franz Jozef replaced Alfred Windischgratz with Field Marshall Baron Ludwig von Welden. - General Perczel unsuccessfully attacked Titel in the hands of Serbs. - The National Assembly declared the dethronment of the Habsburgs, elected Lajos Kossuth as Governing President on April 14. - Kossuth offered privileges to the Vlach rebels. - General Bem captured Karansebes on April 17. The rebelling miners took Selmecbanya from the Habsburgs. - General Gorgey defeated Habsburg Field Marshall Baron Ludwig von Wohlgemuth at Nagysallo in Bars County and General Perczel captured Obecse in Bacs County from the Serb rebels on April 19. - Habsburg Supreme Commander Welden ordered the abandonment of Pest and Komarom without a fight. - Habsburg Field Marshall Ignaz Malkovsky invaded the Temeskoz from Wallachia on April 22. - Perczel defeated the Serbs at Basahida in Torontal County on April 24. - The Hungarians defeated the Habsburgs at the Komarom-Szonyi Battle on April 26. The Habsburgs pulled back to Pozsony. Gaspar Noszlopy and his revolutionaries defeated and chased out the Habsburgs from Kaposvar in Somogy County on April 30. - After the repeated failures of the Habsburg and other invading armies I. Ferenc Jozef asked Russian Tsar I. Nicholas for military help to defeat Hungary. - General Gorgey laid a siege to Buda defended by Habsburg General Heinrich Hentzi on May 4. - General Perczel captured Pancsova from the Serbs. - Kossuth sent Ioan Dragos to talk with the Vlach rebels, led by Avram Iancu. The free army of Imre Hatvani attacked the rebelling Vlachs at the same time. The Vlachs killed Ioan Dragos and rampaged and massacred all Hungarians in the City of Abrudbanya on May 9. - General Bem defeated and chased out Habsburg Ignaz Malkovsky from the Temeskoz on May 16. - Noszlopy's revolutionaries captured Szigetvar in Somogy County from the Habsburgs. The Hungarians recaptured Buda on May 21. - The Russian Tsar agreed to provide a military help to the Habsburgs against Hungary on May 21. - I. Franz Jozef named Bloodthirsty Baron Julius Haynau to be new Supreme Commander of the Habsburg Army. - Hungary and Venice signed an alliance. The Hungarian Government moved back to Pest from Debrecen on June 5. Haynau started his bloody executions with the defenders of Lipotvar. - Colonel Gyorgy Kmetty defeated Habsburg General Franz Wyss at Csorna on June 13. - The Hungarians and Serbs arrived to a peace agreement. It included Serb military assistance in exchange for Serb autonomy. Russian Field Marshall Prince Ivan Fyodorovich Paskievich invaded Hungary with 200,000 men through the Duklai Pass on June 15. The Habsburgs already had 170,000 men attacking Hungary, plus the Croats, Serbs, Vlachs and Slovaks had another 125,000 men fighting against Hungary. The Hungarian Honved army had only 152,000 men. They did very well against the Habsburgs and the other four nationalities wit about 300,000 men combined army, however the overwhelming majority created by the Russians was devastating. - The Habsburgs defeated a Hungarian army at Zsigard in Pozsony County on June 16. - Another Russian General Aleksander Nikolayevich Luders invaded Erdely (Transylvania) with another 100,000 men through the Tomos Pass. - General Gorgey's army was defeated by the Habsburgs at Pered in Pozsony County on June 21. Paskievich captured Kassa on June 24. Habsburg defenders of Arad capitulated to the Hungarians led by General Count Karoly Vecsey on June 27. - Habsburg Lt. General Haynau defeated General Erno Poltenberg and captured Gyor on June 28. - General Gorgey was ordered to pull back to Szeged, but he refused. Gorgey was replaced with Field Marshall Lazar Meszaros. General Gorgey, still in command of his army, defeated Haynau's much larger Habsburg army at Komarom on July 2. The Hungarian gov't moved to Szeged on July 8. - The Russians captured Beszterce in Beszterce-Naszod County on July 10. Gorgey lost the 2nd battle of Komarom against Haynau on July 11. Gorgey pulled back to Vac. Haynau entered Pest and started pillaging and destroying national tresures of the capital. - President Kossuth and Nicolae Balcescu Vlach leader signed a peace agreement, which provided some autonomy and self-governance in the Counties with Vlach majority. Gorgey fought an undecisive battle against Paskievich at Vac on July 15. General Mor Perczel lost a battle against Paskievich at Tura in Pest County. Perczel pulled his army South towards Szeged. Gorge pulled back to Miskolc. General Bem entered Moldovia through the Ojtozi Pass on July 25. The Russians led by Paskievich crossed the Tisza River at Tiszafured on July 27. The Hungarian National Assembly agreed to allow self government and equality of the nationalities including the Jews. Haynau reached Szeged on July 29. Gorgey crossed the Tisza at Tokaj and headed towards Arad. The Russians defeated General Bem at Segesvar on July 31. Famous poet Sandor Petofi died in the battle. The Hungarian Gov't moved to Arad on Aug 1. Haynau captured Szeged on Aug 2. Field Marshall Dembinski was defeated by Haynau at Szoreg on Aug 5. Dembinski pulled back to Temesvar. Russian General Luders defeated the remaining army of General Bem at Nagycsur in Szebenszek on Aug 6. As a last minute effort to keep the Habsburgs away, the Ministers' Council offered the Hungarian Crown to the Russian Tsar. General Bem was defeated by Haynau at Temesvar on Aug 9. Lajos Kossuth renounced his presidency and gave all power to General Artur Gorgey on Aug 11. Gorgey unconditionally capitulated and laid down the weapons with his remaining 32,000 men in fron of Russian General Rudiger on Aug 13. General Mor Perczel left Hungary with his small remaining army at Orsova on Aug 14. General Janos Damjanich capitulated at Arad with 8000 men on Aug 17. Lajos Kossuth and the remaining Hungarian Gov't left Hungary through Orsova. General Count Arisztid Dessewffy and 8000 men laid down their weapons at Karansebes on Aug 19. General Count Karoly Vecsey and his 8000 men laid down their weapons at Borosjeno in Arad County on Aug 21. General Lajos Kazinczy and his 4000 men laid down their weapons at Zsibo in Kozep-Szolnok County on Aug 25. The Munkacs Fortress surrendered to the Russians on Aug 26. - The Hungarians who escaped, moved to the Vidin area in Turkish controlled Bulgaria. The Habsburgs demanded the return of all Hungarians from Turkey on Sep 3, but the Turks refused. Petervarad Fortress surrendered to the Habsburgs on Sep 5. General Gyorgy Klapka surrendered the Komarom Fortress on Sep 27 in exchange for freedom for the 30,000 men defending army. - Former president Count Lajos Batthyany was executed in Pest. 12 Generals and a Colonel were executed in Arad on Oct 6. (Lajos Aulich, Janos Damjanich, Arisztid Dessewffy, Erno Kiss, Karoly Knezich, Gyorgy Lahner, Vilmos Lazar, Count Karoly Leiningen-Westerburg, Jozsef Nagy-Sandor, Erno Poltenberg, Jozsef Schweidel, Ignac Torok and Count Karoly Vecsey) They were called the 13 Aradi Vertanu [13 Bloodwithnesses of Arad.] - Ministers Laszlo Csanyi and Baron Janos Jeszenak were executed on Oct 10. - Two large areas were split off of Hungary. Erdely was separated as Transylvania, and Szlavonia, Horvatorszag and the Murakoz was separated as Croatia. The remaining Hungary was divided into 15 districts. The nearly millenium old County system was eliminated. - Baron Zsigmond Perenyi, Imre Szacsvay and General Lajos Kazinczy were executed on Oct 25. The Serb Vajdasag was established from 4 former counties on Nov 18. The Hungarian refugees in Turkey were moved to Sumla. - As for "joke of the year", the city council of Pest named enemy generals Haynau, Jellacic and Paskievich to be "Honorary Citizens".


The Habsburgs started tyrannical reorganization of Hungary and the the separated territories. Gendarmerie was established. The Vlachs' request for automomy was rejected. The Croatian National Council was banned. The maximum age for the draft was 38 and the length of service was extended to 8 years. - The Protestant Church was under heavy scrunity. - Baron Miklos Wesselenyi died. His funeral in Pest sparked a large demonstration. - Taxes were expanded for all land and buildings, income tax was instituted. - The district system of Main Hungary was replaced with 5 territories. - Peasants of Szabolcs County refused their forced labor services. Peasants in Komarom County attacked the tax collectors. The shipyard workers in Obuda started financial demands. - Rebellion broke out in Hessen and in Holstein in Germany. The Habsburgs and Prussians combined forces and choked the rebellions. - The population of Greater Hungary was 13,191,553.


Colonel Jozsef Makk and Lajos Kossuth discussed the organization of a new independence war in Hungary. Several undercover agents were sent to Hungary to start the organization. - The Seklers of Transylvania independently started to organize their freedom movement. - Lajos Kossuth left Turkey and started to his diplomatic route to win support for a new independence war. He stoppen in Marseille, France on Sep 26 and in London on Oct 29. Kossuth's family was arrested by the Habsburgs. - Louis Bonaparte took over ruling France after a putsch on Dec 2. Kossuth reached New York on Dec 6.


The secret anti-Habsburg organization was discovered and a large number of people were arrested on Jan 24. - Demonstrations and strikes were in the mining cities. - All members of the Hungarian Ministerium were Habsburgs. Railroad workers striked in the Kecskemet-Szeged area. - The Habsburgs instituted a strict censorship. - Gaspar Noszlopy recruited freedom fighters in Pest and Tolna Counties, but he was caught by the Habsburgs. - Louis Bonaparte became Emperor of France as III. Napoleon on Dec 2.


An anti-Habsburg rebellion broke out in Milano, Italy on Feb 6. - Janos Libenyi made an unsuccessful attempt to asassinate Habsburg King I. Franz Jozef in Vienna on Feb 18. - Several anti-Habsburg organizers were executed. - The Russians started the invasion of Moldovia and Wallachia on July 2. - The Hungarian Saint Crown was found, which was originally hidden by the Hungarian revolutionaries in Aug 1849. - The Turks started the attack of the advancing Russians in the Danube River area and through the Caucasian Mountains on Oct 4. - The anti-Habsburg Sekler leaders caught in 1852 were executed. - In a large sea battle the Russians defeated the Turkish Flottilla at Sinope on Nov 30.


England and France agreed to an alliance with Turkey on March 12. England and France declared war on Russia because of the Russian invasion of Moldovia and Wallachia. - I. Franz Jozef married Bavarian Princess Elizabeth Wittelsbach on April 24. Due to the marriage amnesty was given to some political prisoners. - Gun manufacturing and gun ownership laws were expanded to all of the Empire on May 1. - The Habsburgs requested the Russians march out of Moldovia and Wallachia on June 3. Habsburg armies were built up in Galicia and in East Hungary. Russian Tsar I. Nicolas cleared out his troops from Moldovia and Wallachia on July 24. The Habsburg armies entered Moldovia and Wallachia on Aug 10. English and French troops landed in Crimea held by the Russians and they laid a siege to Sevastopol on Sep 14. The English-French armies defeated the Russians coming to relieve Sevastopol at Inkermann on Nov 5. The Habsburgs joined the anti-Russian alliance on Dec 2.


The Kingdom of Sardinia joined the anti-Russian alliance. - Tsar I. Nicolas died on March 2. He was succeded on the throne by II. Alexander. - Sevastopol was captured by the allies in Crimea on Sep 8. - Writer Mihaly Vorosmarty died. His funeral in Pest sparked a large demonstration against the Habsburg tyranny.


After the Paris Peace Conference the Crimean War was ended on March 30.


General amnesty was awarded to the political prisoners and to the emmigrated freedom fighters. - The most famous Hungarian outlaw (a folk hero) Sandor Rozsa of the Lowlands was captured on Maj 8. - Janos Arany wrote the Walesi bardok [Bards of Wales]. Arany was asked to write a poem to praise King I. Franz Josef. The defiant Arany instead wrote about the 500 Bards of Wales who were executed for refusing to praise English King I. Edward. - Population of Greater Hungary was 13.7 million. - A Rothschild Bank (Wiener Creditanstalt) was opened in Pest. - The Hungarian Naval Academy was opened in Fiume.


Serbian King Alexander Karagiorgievich was overthrown by French leaning Obrenovich. - French Emperor III. Napoleon agreed to provide military help to the President of Piemont to free Northern Italy from Habsburg rule.


Colonel Alexandru Cuza was elected Vajda of Moldovia. Wallachia also elected Cuza as their Vajda. Cuza united the two mainly Vlach populated territories. Cuza agreed to allow the Hungarian emigrants to locate bases in his country for the new independence war. He requested payments as 33% of the weapons. They also agreed to a Confederation of Hungary, Wallachia and Serbia. - Sardinian King II. Victor Emanuel refused to back down from his goal to unite Northern Italy. The Habsburgs crossed into Piemont with 150,000 men at the Ticino River on April 29. This started the Italian-French-Habsburg War. - Lajos Kossuth and III. Napoleon agreed in Paris that Hungary will start a new independence war as soon as the French troops reach the Hungarian border. The emigrated Hungarian Gov't re-formed in Paris on May 6. The emigrated Hungarian troops started to build up in Genova and they formed the "Hungarian Legion". - The French army defeated and pushed back the Habsburg army at Montabello on May 20. The Habsburgs suffered a devastating loss from the French army at Magenta on June 4, and they lost all of Lombardy. The Habsburgs gave up Milano on June 5. The Habsburgs suffered another heavy loss at Solferino on June 24. The seriousness of these war injuries initiated the formation of the International Red Cross by the Geneva Convention. France, Lombardy and Austria agreed to a peace treaty on July 11, which allowed the Habsburgs to keep Venice. - The Ministerium of Hungary had only 1 Hungarian member. Hungarian National demonstrations: at Karoly Kisfaludy's grave in Pest on Nov 21, 10,000 people at the Erdely Muzeum in Kolozsvar and at the Pest Opera House after Ferenc Erkel's 'Laszlo Hunyadi' opera on Nov 26 and at Ferenc Kazinczy's grave in Szephalom on Dec 30.


Censorship was increased, home invasions and arrests of Hungarian leaders continued. Count Istvan Szechenyi committed suicide after repeated harrassments. - The King named Lt. General Lajos Benedek as Governor of Hungary on April 19. - The County Government system was reinstated. 80,000 people showed up to Szechenyi's funeral. Several funerals and memorial marches ended in national demonstrations. - Giuseppe Garibaldi landed in Sicili with 1000 men on May 11. Garibaldi captured Palermo on May 30. Garibaldi marched into Naples on Sep 7. - The King released his "October Diploma", which promised reinstating the National Assembly and the transfer of lawmaking back to the Assembly, Foreign politics and the military to stay under the King's rule and Hungarian will be reinstated as official language. - The Kindom of Italy was formed on Oct 26. It's capital was Firenze. Rome area stayed under French control and the Venice area stayed under Habsburg control. - Undercover anti-Habsburg organizations continued, resulting in wide spread demonstrations. Habsburg symbols (the eagles) were destroyed in Hungary. - King I. Franz Josef ordered the Serbian and Temes areas to be reattached to Hungary.


The King ordered the reattachment of Murakoz to Hungary. - Herzegovina rebelled against the Turks. - The Hungarian Ministerium consisted from 6 Habsburg and 2 Hungarian members. - More anti-Habsburg and independence demonstrations. - The Habsburg Empire Council had 343 council members. From that 85 were from Hungary, 26 from Transylvania and 9 from Croatia. - The Hungarian Natonal Assembly was working to reinstate the 1848 laws. - The Assembly declad that all nationalities are Hungarian citizens with equal rights and rights to use their languages etc. - Alexandru Joan Cuza, Vajda of Wallachia and Moldovia united the 2 countries and named it Romania on Dec 23.


The Saxons of Transylvania requested self governing from the King. - Suspected Hungarian revolutionaries were constantly arrested. - Otto von Bismark was named Prime Minister of Prussia on Sep 24. - A revolution was started in Greece on Oct 11 and King Otto was dethroned.


A revolution broke out in Poland against the Russian rule on Jan 22. - Andras Jambor and Jozsef Somogyi started to organize a new independence war. They were betrayed by traitor ex-General Lajos Asboth. - Lajos Kossuth planned the new uprising from Torino Italy. Kossuth was hoping for an Italian-Habsburg war or a Galician independence war to distract the Habsburgs. - The Russian army defeated the Polish revolution in Dec.


The Budapest Stock Exchange was opened on Jan 8. - Prussia and Austria started a war against Denmark in order to take Schleswig and Holstein. - Pal Almasy and Nedeczky Istvan organized independence demonstrations. Traitor Lajos Asboth betrayed the revolutionaries again. - Denmark was defeated by the Austrian-Prussian army at Duppel on May 12. Denmark conceeded Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg to Austria and Prussia.


To avoid the imminent Hungarian uprising, Austrian represantives started talks with Hungarian representatives to arrange the Compromise between the 2 largest territories of the Habsburg Empire. The Habsburgs would give complete independence to Hungary with the exception of the position of the Habsburg King, foreign policy and the military. The Czechs of the Habsburg Empire submitted their opposition to the Compromise. - The Transylvanian National Assembly on Kolozsvar renewed their vote for the reunification of Hungary and Erdely (Transylvania). The Hungarian National Assembly started their meeting on Dec 14. Ferenc Deak's Opposition Party had 180 seats, the Centrists 94, the Conservatives 21, and the Leftists 20 seats. Most of the Transylvanian representatives joined Deak's Party.


Talks of a Separate Compromise between Hungary and Croatia stated in April. - Prussia and Italy formed an anti-Austrian alliance. - The Prussians invaded Holstein, the territory captured by Austria from Denmark in 1864. A war between Austria and Prussia broke out. Both sides requested the remaining smaller German territories for support. - The Habsburgs awarded Venice to Italy to avoid the imminent war with Italy. Italy still declared war on the Habsburgs on June 20. The Habsburgs defeated the Italians at Custozza on June 24. - The Prussians defeated the Austrians in a decisive battle at Koniggratz on July 3. The Austrian Navy led by Admiral Tegethoff defeated the much larger Italian Navy at Lissa on July 20. - Austria and Prussia signed a peace agreement: Austria (Habsburg Empire) seceded from the German Union, Prussia kept Schleswig and Holstein and Austria paid 20 million gold to Prussia. - Gyorgy Klapka and his army of 1500 Hungarian exiles entered Trencsen County on Aug 3. Unfortunately the expected revolution did not break out and the Prussians did not provide any promised help, so Klapka pulled his army back to Silezia. - The Budapest Zoo opened on Aug 9. - Final talks of the Compromise took place in Vienna on Aug 21. - Kossuth supporters organized anti-Compromise movement and demonstrations in Hungary. - The Vlachs living in Erdely submitted their opposition of the reunification of Hungary and Transylvania.


Serb and Vlach (Romanian) minority representatives submitted their protests to the National Assembly against the Compromise. - King I. Franz Josef named Count Gyula Andrassy as Prime Minister of Hungary on Feb 17. - Panslav Conference was held in Moscow. Its purpose was to establish Slavic superiority in Central and Eastern Europe and they declared their opposition to the Compromise. - Habsburg Franz Josef was crowned King of Hungary on June 8. He ruled until 1916. His wife Elizabeth was crowned Queen. The King signed the Comromise, consisting of 69 Paragraphs, on July 28. Hungary gained independence with the exception of the position of the Habsburg King, foreign policy and the military. Austria and Hungary became a Dual Monarchy. - Lajos Kossuth, in exile in Paris, refused to accept the Habsburgs right to the Hungarian Throne, rejected the Compromise and renewed his goal for complete Independence. - The King and the Austrian Parlament revised the Austrian Constitution to be in agreement with the Compromise. - Hungary's share of the Monarchy's expenses was set at 30%. - The King declared the equal rights for the Jewish/Israelita religion. - Anyos Jedlik invented the dynamo (generator).


The Liberals formed the 1st General Workers' Association in Pest. - The Centrist Party led by Kalman Tisza advanced their "Points of Bihar", regarding separating finance and commerce from Austria and the establishment of an independent Hungarian military. - The Leftist Party advanced their completely Independent Hungary goal based on the 1848 National Assembly laws. The Democratic Circles organized a Declaration of Independence celebration in Kiskunfelegyhaza on April 13. The military fired into the crowd. - Croat separatists, opponents of the Hungarian-Croat Compromise demonstrated in Zagrab on May 20. - The Czechs demanded an Austrian-Czech Comromise. - The official name of the Dual Monarchy was declared as: 'Austro-Hungarian Monarchy'. - Hungarian-Croat Compromise became law on Nov 17. Croatia gained independence/autonomy in internal politics. The leader of the Croats was called a 'Ban'. Defense, finance and commerce remained common with the Monarchy. The opposition: the Croatian National Liberal Party preferred the Habsburgs as sole rulers, the Croat Legal Party preferred complete Croatian independence. - Public schooling became mandatory untl age 12. A Hungarian Military was organized. The equality of all minority nationalities was reinforced. While official language was Hungarian, the minorities were allowed to use their languages locally, including in courts, arts and in schools including highschools. The unification of Hungary and Erdely was completed. - Nobles and non-nobles became equal in court. - A Jewish Congress was held on Dec 14.


Rest Coming soon


-------------- Hungarian Folk Band "Dalriada": Kinizsi's Celebration (Battle of Kenyermezo 1479) -- Beautiful land of Transylvania In serious danger, Coming, approaching the hideous pagan Awful large army. Rage, rob and destroy, kill, With iron and fire, Thirty thousand prisoners Are in chains. Bathory, a hero, a good leader, Who gets on the road, Pillaging army, fleeing people, To payback with the sword. Székely people also come, Fortress warriors, but One Third, Of the enemy's camp. Mount your horses, great braves, Exterminate the pagans, where you can reach them, Bathe our swords in blood today! Crooked headgear, [turban] Do not miss, Slice them up, Do not spare any Towelheads! Do not spare any Towelheads! Do not spare any Towelheads! "A lost battle, lost country!" Hero Bathory's voice be heard, But once arrows hit him, Faints from the horse, falls to the ground. It seems that the Pagan fortunes are rising, but Then assaults with fiercely haste, With his army, Kinizsi himself. Do not spare any Towelheads! Do not spare any Towelheads! Mount your horses, great braves, Exterminate the pagans, where you can reach them, Bathe our swords in blood today! Crooked headgear, Do not miss, Slice them up, Do not spare any Towelheads! Like raging flood, (Noone comparable in battle) Runs loyal Kinizsi, Spoilling, tearing, cutting. Pagans fall into the dust, the remainders are fleeing, Do not stop until Istambul, Their feet do not have time to touch the road. The army stops for the night, Kinizsi gets wine, for entertainment, Footstomping music plays, The leader dancing, not resting. Two dead Turks in each hand He dances in the moonlight, Two more between his teeth, Until bright morning light. ----------------

”And for the international order that we have worked for for generations to build. President Obama EU-US Summit Speech Brussels Belgium (March 26, 2014)